Kamloops Chinuk Wawa, Chinuk pipa, and the vitality of pidgins

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dc.contributor.author Robertson, David Douglas
dc.date.accessioned 2012-02-07T21:01:14Z
dc.date.available 2012-02-07T21:01:14Z
dc.date.copyright 2011 en_US
dc.date.issued 2012-02-07
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/1828/3840
dc.description.abstract This dissertation presents the first full grammatical description of unprompted (spontaneous) speech in pidgin Chinook Jargon [synonyms Chinúk Wawa, Chinook]. The data come from a dialect I term ‘Kamloops Chinúk Wawa’, used in southern interior British Columbia circa 1900. I also present the first historical study and structural analysis of the shorthand-based ‘Chinuk pipa’ alphabet in which Kamloops Chinúk Wawa was written, primarily by Salish people. This study is made possible by the discovery of several hundred such texts, which I have transliterated and analyzed. The Basic Linguistic Theory-inspired (cf. Dixon 2010a,b) framework used here interprets Kamloops Chinúk Wawa as surprisingly ramified in morphological and syntactic structure, a finding in line with recent studies reexamining the status of pidgins by Bakker (e.g. 2003a,b, forthcoming) among others. Among the major findings: an unusually successful pidgin literacy including a widely circulated newspaper Kamloops Wawa, and language planning by the missionary J.M.R. Le Jeune, O.M.I. He planned both for the use of Kamloops Chinúk Wawa and this alphabet, and for their replacement by English. Additional sociolinguistic factors determining how Chinuk pipa was written included Salish preferences for learning to write by whole-word units (rather than letter by letter), and toward informal intra-community teaching of this first group literacy. In addition to compounding and conversion of lexical roots, Kamloops Chinúk Wawa morphology exploited three types of preposed grammatical morphemes—affixes, clitics, and particles. Virtually all are homonymous with and grammaticalized from demonstrably lexical morphs. Newly identified categories include ‘out-of-control’ transitivity marking and discourse markers including ‘admirative’ and ‘inferred’. Contrary to previous claims about Chinook Jargon (cf. Vrzic 1999), no overt passive voice exists in Kamloops Chinúk Wawa (nor probably in pan-Chinook Jargon), but a previously unknown ‘passivization strategy’ of implied agent demotion is brought to light. A realis-irrealis modality distinction is reflected at several scopal levels: phrase, clause and sentence. Functional differences are observed between irrealis clauses before and after main clauses. Polar questions are restricted to subordinate clauses, while alternative questions are formed by simple juxtaposition of irrealis clauses. Main-clause interrogatives are limited to content-question forms, optionally with irrealis marking. Positive imperatives are normally signaled by a mood particle on a realis clause, negative ones by a negative particle. Aspect is marked in a three-part ingressive-imperfective-completive system, with a marginal fourth ‘conative’. One negative operator has characteristically clausal, and another phrasal, scope. One copula is newly attested. Degree marking is largely confined to ‘predicative’ adjectives (copula complements). Several novel features of pronoun usage possibly reflect Salish L1 grammatical habits: a consistent animacy distinction occurs in third-person pronouns, where pan-Chinook Jargon 'iaka' (animate singular) and 'klaska' (animate plural) contrast with a null inanimate object/patient; this null and 'iaka' are non-specified for number; in intransitives, double exponence (repetition) of pronominal subjects is common; and pan-Chinook Jargon 'klaksta' (originally ‘who?’) and 'klaska' (originally ‘they’) vary freely with each other. Certain etymologically content-question forms are used also as determiners. Kamloops Chinúk Wawa’s numeral system is unusually regular and small for a pidgin; numerals are also used ordinally in a distinctly Chinook Jargon type of personal name. There is a null allomorph of the preposition 'kopa'. This preposition has additionally a realis complementizer function (with nominalized predicates) distinct from irrealis 'pus' (with verbal ones). Conjunction 'pi' also has a function in a syntactic focus-increasing and -reducing system. en_US
dc.language English eng
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.subject Aboriginal languages en_US
dc.subject Basic Linguistic Theory en_US
dc.subject BC languages en_US
dc.subject Chinook Jargon en_US
dc.subject Chinuk pipa en_US
dc.subject Canadian languages en_US
dc.subject Chinuk Wawa en_US
dc.subject Creolistics en_US
dc.subject Duployan shorthand en_US
dc.subject Descriptive linguistics en_US
dc.subject Documentary linguistics en_US
dc.subject Endangered languages en_US
dc.subject First Nations languages en_US
dc.subject Historical linguistics en_US
dc.subject Indigenous languages en_US
dc.subject Kamloops Chinuk Wawa en_US
dc.subject Kamloops Wawa en_US
dc.subject Language contact en_US
dc.subject Le Jeune, J.M.R. en_US
dc.subject Language revitalization en_US
dc.subject Lillooet Indians en_US
dc.subject Literacy en_US
dc.subject Missionary linguistics en_US
dc.subject Northwest languages en_US
dc.subject Okanagan Indians en_US
dc.subject Pidgin and creole linguistics en_US
dc.subject Pidgin languages en_US
dc.subject Pacific Northwest languages en_US
dc.subject Salish languages en_US
dc.subject Shorthand en_US
dc.subject Shuswap Indians en_US
dc.subject Thompson Indians en_US
dc.subject Writing systems en_US
dc.title Kamloops Chinuk Wawa, Chinuk pipa, and the vitality of pidgins en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US
dc.contributor.supervisor Czaykowska-Higgins, Ewa
dc.degree.department Dept. of Linguistics en_US
dc.degree.level Doctor of Philosophy Ph.D. en_US
dc.rights.temp Available to the World Wide Web en_US
dc.description.scholarlevel Graduate en_US

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