New observations of relative sea level from the Northern Cascadia Subduction Zone: Cordilleran ice sheet history and mantle rheology

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dc.contributor.author Belanger, Kevin Karl
dc.date.accessioned 2013-04-26T16:18:06Z
dc.date.available 2014-03-02T12:22:03Z
dc.date.copyright 2013 en_US
dc.date.issued 2013-04-26
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/1828/4558
dc.description.abstract New relative sea-level (RSL) observations dating from the late Pleistocene and early Holocene, during and after the collapse of the Cordilleran ice-sheet (CIS), are provided for two regions in southern coastal British Columbia. They record the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) response of the Earth to the changing surface load of the waning CIS. The data provide a new RSL curve for Sechelt, on the mainland coast north of Vancouver, and extend and revise a previously constructed curve for Barkley Sound on the west coast of Vancouver Island. The observations create a new profile of RSL curves oriented southwest-northeast across Vancouver Island and the Strait of Georgia. A previously-defined profile of RSL curves is oriented northwest-southeast profile along the east coast of Vancouver Island. The two profiles intersect in the central Strait of Georgia. The new RSL curves sample different parts of the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) and provide constraints on the history of the CIS. The Juan de Fuca plate subducts beneath the North American plate in roughly the same southwest to northeast direction as the RSL profile. GIA modelling of the RSL observations along this profile may indicate spatial variations related to the structure of the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ). The CIS flowed roughly from northeast to southwest over the regions of interest. RSL observations along this path indicate how sea-level change differed with distance from the edge of the ice-sheet towards its centre. The CIS model of James et al. (2009b) is refined to fit observed sea levels while applying glacial geological constraints to regional ice sheet advance and retreat. Sea level in Barkley Sound dropped from greater than 27 m elevation before 15 cal kyr BP to -46 m below present around 12 cal kyr BP. At Sechelt, sea level closely follows the same trend as in the central Strait of Georgia, dropping from over 150 m before 14 cal kyr BP and falling past present levels after 12.4 cal kyr BP to a poorly constrained lowstand between 12 and 9 cal kyr BP. The initial crustal uplift rate near Sechelt was at least 85 mm/yr, comparable to that of the central Strait of Georgia. The sea-level observations are best fit with predictions employing an Earth model with a 60-km effective lithosphere thickness and asthenospheric viscosity and thickness of 4 × 1019 Pa s and 380 km, respectively. The transition zone and lower mantle viscosities are based on the VM2 Earth model (Peltier 2002). Sea level in Barkley Sound fell quickly (15-30 mm/yr), and observed sea level is best fit with the same asthenospheric viscosity, but with a thinner 30-km thick lithosphere, consistent with the regional tectonic structure. Revisions to the ice model are consistent with radiocarbon constraints on ice sheet history and provide good agreement with the observed sea-level history for the study regions as well as RSL histories previously described for the Strait of Georgia and southern Vancouver Island. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.subject relative sea level en_US
dc.subject Cascadia Subduction Zone en_US
dc.subject Cordilleran ice sheet en_US
dc.subject mantle rheology en_US
dc.subject Sechelt en_US
dc.subject Barkley Sound en_US
dc.subject Tofino en_US
dc.subject glacial isostatic adjustment en_US
dc.title New observations of relative sea level from the Northern Cascadia Subduction Zone: Cordilleran ice sheet history and mantle rheology en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US
dc.contributor.supervisor James, Thomas Sinclair
dc.contributor.supervisor Spence, George D.
dc.degree.department School of Earth and Ocean Sciences en_US
dc.degree.level Master of Science M.Sc. en_US
dc.rights.temp Available to the World Wide Web en_US
dc.description.scholarlevel Graduate en_US
dc.description.proquestcode 0372 en_US

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