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K-band Phased Array Feed (KPAF) Receiver Imaging System

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dc.contributor.author Locke, Lisa Shannon
dc.date.accessioned 2014-09-29T22:52:13Z
dc.date.available 2014-09-29T22:52:13Z
dc.date.copyright 2014 en_US
dc.date.issued 2014-09-29
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/1828/5700
dc.description.abstract Astronomy large-scale surveys require instrumentation to minimize the time required to complete observations of large sections of the sky. Optimizing receiver systems has been achieved through reducing the system temperature primarily by advances in low-noise amplifier technology to a point that the internally generated noise is now fast approaching the quantum limit. Instead, reflector-coupled focal plane arrays are now used to increase the field of view (FoV) by employing either multi-element horn feeds or phased array feeds. Widely spaced (2-3 wavelengths diameter) horn feeds inefficiently sample the available focal plane radiation, thus requiring multiple imaging passes. Alternatively, a more efficient method is to use a narrow element (0.5 wavelengths diameter) phased array feed with a beamformer to produce overlapping beams on the sky, fully Nyquist sampling the focal plane with a single pass. The FoV can be further increased with additional phased array feed (PAF) antenna-receiver modules adding to the contiguous fully sampled region. A 5 x 5 K-band (18 - 26 GHz) single polarization modular PAF incorporating an antenna array of planar axially symmetric elements is designed, simulated, manufactured and tested. Each narrow width tapered slot antenna element has an independent receiver chain consisting of a cryogenic packaged monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) GaAs amplifier and a packaged MMIC down converting mixer. Synthesized beams and beamformer characteristics are presented. The PAF imaging system performance is evaluated by survey speed and compared to the industry standard, the single pixel feed (SPF). Scientifically, K-band is attractive because it contains numerous molecular transitions, in particular the rotation-inversion lines of ammonia. These transitions are excited in dense gas, and can be used to directly measure kinetic temperatures and velocities of protostars throughout the Galaxy. Depending on the line detected, gas of different temperatures can be probed. It is concluded that even with a higher system temperature, a PAF with sufficient number of synthesized beams can outperform a SPF in imaging speed by more than an order of magnitude. en_US
dc.language English eng
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.subject array en_US
dc.subject beamforming en_US
dc.subject cryogenic en_US
dc.subject field of view en_US
dc.subject MMIC en_US
dc.subject phased array feed en_US
dc.subject radio astronomy en_US
dc.subject tapered slot antenna en_US
dc.title K-band Phased Array Feed (KPAF) Receiver Imaging System en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US
dc.contributor.supervisor Bornemann, J.
dc.contributor.supervisor Claude, Stephane M. X.
dc.degree.department Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering en_US
dc.degree.level Doctor of Philosophy Ph.D. en_US
dc.rights.temp Available to the World Wide Web en_US
dc.identifier.bibliographicCitation L. Locke, J. Bornemann and S. Claude, "Substrate integrated waveguide-fed tapered slot antenna with smooth performance characteristics over an ultra-wide bandwidth", ACES Journal, Vol. 28, pp. 454-462, May 2013. en_US
dc.identifier.bibliographicCitation L. Locke, S. Claude, J. Bornemann, D. Henke, J. Di Francesco, F. Jiang, D. Garcia, I. Wevers and P. Niranjanan, "KPAF (K-band phased array feed) instrument concept", Proc. SPIE Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation, p.1-11, Montreal, Canada, June 2014. en_US
dc.identifier.bibliographicCitation L. Locke, J. Bornemann and S. Claude, "Novel K-band prime focus reflector-coupled focal plane array", Proc. 43rd European Microwave Conf., pp. 211-214, Nuremberg, Germany, Oct. 2013. en_US
dc.identifier.bibliographicCitation L. Locke, Z. Kordiboroujeni, J. Bornemann and S. Claude, "Substrate integrated waveguide couplers for tapered slot antennas in adaptive receiver applications", Proc. 7th European Conf. Antennas Propagat., pp. 2778-2782, Gothenburg, Sweden, Apr. 2013. en_US
dc.description.scholarlevel Graduate en_US


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