Design, modeling and optimization of hybridized automated manual transmission for electrified vehicles

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dc.contributor.author Wu, Guang
dc.date.accessioned 2017-12-21T20:24:03Z
dc.date.available 2017-12-21T20:24:03Z
dc.date.copyright 2017 en_US
dc.date.issued 2017-12-21
dc.identifier.uri https://dspace.library.uvic.ca//handle/1828/8907
dc.description.abstract This research systematically compares various electrified vehicles based upon electrification levels and powertrain configurations. A series of novel hybrid electric powertrain systems based on the newly proposed Hybridized Automated Manual Transmission (HAMT) concept are introduced. One representative hybrid powertrain system is selected to illustrate their operation principle. The new HAMT-based hybrid powertrain system overcomes the bottleneck problem of mainstream power-split hybrid systems with relatively low torque capacity and the constraint for utility vehicle electrification, and presents advantages over other hybrid powertrain systems in efficiency and costs. In addition, the new hybrid powertrain system can deliver continuous output torque by filling torque hole during gearshift, through coordinated control of engine, motor, and transmission, improving the driveability of regular Automated Manual Transmission (AMT), whose applications have been hampered by torque hole over the past years. The proposed HAMT-based hybrid systems with improved torque capacity, efficiency, costs, and driveability come with a compact design and more flexible operation through the amount of gearwheels equivalent to a 5-speed AMT to achieve 8 variable gear ratios for the Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) mode and Electric Vehicle (EV) mode operations of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV). Model-based optimization, dynamics analysis, and powertrain control strategies have been introduced for a PHEV with a representative 8-speed HAMT. Vehicle simulations have been made to study and verify the capability and advantages of the new electrified powertrain system. Firstly, the operation principles of various HAMTs are discussed through detailed power flows at each gear. The fundamental principles of typical HAMT variations are explained using a new power-flow triangle with three ports. Based on the concept of Torque Gap Filler (TGF), a set of HAMT system designs have been introduced and closely studied to provide continuous and stable output torque. The selected hybrid powertrain system equipped with a representative HAMT system supports both HEV mode and EV mode with eight variable gear ratios for each mode. Among the eight forward gear ratios, six are independent and two are dependent on the other gears. Combinations of dog clutches at all gears are designed to eliminate torque holes. Gear ratios and gearshift schedule of the 8-speed HAMT are designed to support the new design. Torque paths at each gear are illustrated and transient scenarios including gearshifts and mode transitions are investigated. The gear ratio of each gear is determined by considering the unique clutch combination of this HAMT, using the classical gear ratio design method - Progressive Ratio Steps. Due to the broader high efficiency operation region of electric motors, a model-based optimization method is used to determine the two gear ratios for the EV mode to achieve better fuel economy and avoid unnecessary gearshifts. Dynamic Programming (DP) is used to identify the optimal gear ratios, considering vehicle fuel economy for the EPA75 and Highway Fuel Economy Fuel Test (HWFET) driving cycles. The 4th and 6th gears among the eight gear ratios in the EV mode of PHEV are based on 2-speed gearbox design for an EV, and their gearshift schedules are determined by optimization. Combining the considerations for the hybrid and EV modes of a PHEV, key elements of the proposed HAMT system, including gearshift schedule, clutch combination, and gear ratios for highly efficient operation are determined. The more challenging driveability issues during mode transition from EV to HEV and power-on gearshift with TGF during acceleration are addressed. Both of these two operations require relatively high power/torque outputs and involve multiple powertrain components, including engine, motor, main clutch and gearbox, within a period of two seconds. A lumped-mass model (LMM) of the HAMT-based hybrid vehicle is built to analyze the driveline dynamics in two steady states and four transient states. Each of these states is analyzed independently, according to states of main clutch and gear selectors, considering different phases of the TGF operation and EV-HEV mode transition. The methods for modeling the discontinuity of clutch torque and dog clutch inside the HAMT are discussed to support the subsequent powertrain system modeling and control development. To identify the optimal control schemes for model transition and gearshift, the model-based optimization method for a post-transmission parallel PHEV is developed. The vehicle powertrain model was initially built using AUTONOMIE and MATLAB/Simulink with primary parameters from a prototype PHEV and its dSPACE ASM model developed at University of Victoria. System dynamics in EV mode and hybrid mode are described as a group of state-space equations, which are further discretized into matrix form to simplify the optimization search. A DP-based global optimization method is used to identify the optimal control inputs, including engine torque, motor torque, and main clutch torque. Four principles for desirable EV-HEV mode transitions are extracted based on the results of the optimization. To model different operation modes and complex power flows, the initial baseline powertrain system model is then replaced by a customized MATLAB/SimDriveline model. In this new physics-based powertrain model, gearshift actuators and controller are added to model the gearshift and mode transition processes. To achieve good driveability, the TGF feature of the HAMT design is split into five transient and two steady phases, each corresponding to a fundamental operating mode. Control logics of upshift and downshift, as well as EV-HEV mode transition are introduced. Four principles of mode transition derived from global optimization results are introduced for powertrain system control. Simulations of the HAMT-based hybrid powertrain operations have been carried out to verify the functionality and advantages of the proposed HAMT design in achieving excellent driveability during mode transition and gearshifts. Through controlled coordination of engine, motor and main clutch, EV-HEV mode transition can be achieved smoothly within a period of 2-3 seconds. Even slight driveline fluctuation can be eliminated by dedicated anti-shuffle control with the motors as actuators. The same simulation model also demonstrates excellent driveability during power-on gearshift. Comparing simulation results with and without TGF shows that this new hybrid powertrain system can effectively eliminate torque holes during gearshift. With the demonstrated advantages of this new system in efficiency, torque capacity, simplicity in design and manufacturing costs over its existing rivals, the research provides a promising alternative to mainstream power-split hybrid electric powertrain system design. en_US
dc.language English eng
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.rights Available to the World Wide Web en_US
dc.subject Hybrid Vehicle en_US
dc.subject Transmission en_US
dc.subject Electrified Vehicle en_US
dc.subject AMT en_US
dc.subject Modeling en_US
dc.subject Control en_US
dc.subject Optimization en_US
dc.title Design, modeling and optimization of hybridized automated manual transmission for electrified vehicles en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US
dc.contributor.supervisor Dong, Zuomin
dc.degree.department Department of Mechanical Engineering en_US
dc.degree.level Doctor of Philosophy Ph.D. en_US
dc.description.scholarlevel Graduate en_US

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