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Indigenous Bilingual and Revitalization-Immersion Education in Canada and the USA

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dc.contributor.author McIvor, Onowa
dc.contributor.author McCarty, Teresa L.
dc.date.accessioned 2019-10-15T20:02:15Z
dc.date.available 2019-10-15T20:02:15Z
dc.date.copyright 2017 en_US
dc.date.issued 2017
dc.identifier.citation McIvor, O. & McCarty, T.L. (2017). Indigenous Bilingual and Revitalization- Immersion Education in Canada and the USA. In García O., Lin A., May S. (eds) Bilingual and Multilingual Education. Encyclopedia of Language and Education (3rd ed.). Springer, Switzerland. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-02258-1_34 en_US
dc.identifier.uri https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-02258-1_34
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/1828/11245
dc.description.abstract The sociolinguistic landscape in Native North America is defined by the combined realities of language loss and reclamation. In these contexts there is an overwhelming trend toward revitalization-immersion education undertaken in and out of school. The US Census data report 169 Native American languages spoken by 370,000 Native people; the Canadian Census data enumerate 240,815 Aboriginal people who report Aboriginal language conversational proficiency. An encouraging statistic in Canada has more Aboriginal people reporting Aboriginal language conversational proficiency than those reporting an Aboriginal mother tongue, indicating that increasing numbers of Aboriginal language speakers in Canada are second language learners. Pairing linguistic diversity with increasing urbanization and diaspora realities creates additional challenges for Indigenous revitalization-immersion education, as does the diversity of school systems that Native students attend. Public schools – by far the most common school type – tend to have few Native teachers and minimal or no Native language and culture content. Given this sociolinguistic, demographic, and educational profile, this chapter provides an overview of historical and contemporary Indigenous language policies and practices across regions and within the two nation-states. Key cases are highlighted. Despite the challenges, Indigenous peoples in Canada and the USA are finding creative ways to bring their languages into new domains and new generations through Indigenous bilingual and revitalization-immersion education. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Encyclopedia of Language and Education: Bilingual and Multilingual Education en_US
dc.subject Indigenous education en_US
dc.subject Aboriginal languages en_US
dc.subject Native American languages en_US
dc.subject Language revitalization en_US
dc.subject Immersion education en_US
dc.title Indigenous Bilingual and Revitalization-Immersion Education in Canada and the USA en_US
dc.type Book chapter en_US
dc.description.scholarlevel Faculty en_US
dc.description.reviewstatus Reviewed en_US


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