The 2019–2020 Khalili (Iran) Earthquake Sequence—Anthropogenic Seismicity in the Zagros Simply Folded Belt?

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dc.contributor.author Jamalreyhani, Mohammadreza
dc.contributor.author Pousse-Beltran, Léa
dc.contributor.author Büyükakpınar, Pınar
dc.contributor.author Cesca, Simone
dc.contributor.author Nissen, Edwin
dc.contributor.author Ghods, Abdolreza
dc.contributor.author López-Comino, José Ángel
dc.contributor.author Rezapour, Mehdi
dc.contributor.author Najafi, Mahdi
dc.date.accessioned 2022-03-16T22:22:28Z
dc.date.available 2022-03-16T22:22:28Z
dc.date.copyright 2021 en_US
dc.date.issued 2021-12
dc.identifier.citation Jamalreyhani, M., Pousse-Beltran, L., Büyükakpınar, P., Cesca, S., Nissen, E., et al. (2021). The 2019–2020 Khalili (Iran) earthquake sequence—anthropogenic seismicity in the Zagros simply folded belt? Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 126(12). https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JB022797 en_US
dc.identifier.uri https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JB022797
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/1828/13803
dc.description . We are thankful to Gudrun Richter, Christian Heberland, Sebastian Hainzl, Torsten Dahm, and Mir Ali Hassanzadeh for constructive comments on this work. M. Jamalreyhani and P. Büyükakpınar are very grateful to Claus Milkereit and Dorina Kroll for supporting them, during their visit to the GFZ Potsdam. Furthermore, we are grateful to Editor Rachel Abercrombie, the associate editor, and four anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions that helped us to improve the manuscript. en_US
dc.description.abstract We investigate the origin of a long-lived earthquake cluster in the Fars arc of the Zagros Simply Folded Belt that is colocated with the major Shanul natural gas field. The cluster emerged in January 2019 and initially comprised small events of Mn ∼ 3–4. It culminated on 9 June 2020 with a pair of Mw 5.4 and 5.7 earthquakes, which was followed by >100 aftershocks. We assess the spatiotemporal evolution of the earthquake sequence using multiple event hypocenter relocations, waveform inversions, and Sentinel-1 Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements and models. We find that the early part of the sequence is spatially distinct from the 9 June 2020 earthquakes and their aftershocks. Moment tensors, centroid depths, and source parameter uncertainties of 15 of the largest (Mn ≥ 4.0) events show that the sequence is dominated by reverse faulting at shallow depths (mostly ≤4 km) within the sedimentary cover. InSAR modeling shows that the Mw 5.7 mainshock occurred at depths of 2–8 km with a rupture length and maximum slip of ∼20 km and ∼0.5 m, respectively. Our results suggest that the 2019–2020 Khalili earthquake sequence was likely influenced by operation of the Shanul field, though elevated natural seismicity in the Zagros makes the association difficult to prove. Understanding how to distinguish man-made from natural seismicity is helpful for hazard and risk assessment, notably in the Zagros, which is both seismically active and rich in oil and gas reserves. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship GFZ international training course Seismology and seismic hazard assessment. Grant Number: S08-60 321.50 ALL 03/19 Iran National Science Foundation (INSF). Grant Number: 97013349 Canadian Network for Research and Innovation in Machining Technology, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (CRSNG). Grant Number: 2017-04029 ED European union horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Curie grant. Grant Number: 754446 Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG). Grant Number: 407141557 Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam - Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada Canada Foundation for Innovation Universidad de Granada en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Journal of Geophysical Research: solid Earth en_US
dc.subject Zagros en_US
dc.subject anthropogenic earthquakes en_US
dc.subject Shanul gas field en_US
dc.subject gas extraction en_US
dc.subject InSAR en_US
dc.subject Khalili earthquakes en_US
dc.title The 2019–2020 Khalili (Iran) Earthquake Sequence—Anthropogenic Seismicity in the Zagros Simply Folded Belt? en_US
dc.type Article en_US
dc.description.scholarlevel Faculty en_US
dc.description.reviewstatus Reviewed en_US

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