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Decline in Memory, Visuospatial Ability, and Crystalized Cognitive Abilities in Older Adults: Normative Aging or Terminal Decline?

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dc.contributor.author Bendayan, R.
dc.contributor.author Piccinin, A.M.
dc.contributor.author Hofer, S.M.
dc.contributor.author Cadar, D.
dc.contributor.author Johansson, B.
dc.contributor.author Muniz-Terrera, G.
dc.date.accessioned 2017-10-19T18:00:30Z
dc.date.available 2017-10-19T18:00:30Z
dc.date.copyright 2017 en_US
dc.date.issued 2017-05
dc.identifier.citation Bendayan, R., Piccinin, A.M., Hofer, S.M., Cadar, D., Johansson, B., & Muniz- Terrera, G. (2017). Decline in Memory, Visuospatial Ability, and Crystalized Cognitive Abilities in Older Adults: Normative Aging or Terminal Decline?. Journal of Aging Research, Vol. 2017, Article ID 6210105. en_US
dc.identifier.uri https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/6210105
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/1828/8700
dc.description.abstract The aim of this study is to explore the pattern of change in multiple measures of cognitive abilities in a sample of oldest-old adults, comparing two different time metrics (chronological age and time to death) and therefore examining both underlying conceptual assumptions (age-related change and terminal decline). Moreover, the association with individual characteristics as sex, education, and dementia diagnosis was also examined. Measures of cognitive status (Mini-Mental State Examination and the Swedish Clock Test) and tests of crystallized (knowledge and synonyms), memory (verbal memory, nonverbal long-term memory, recognition and correspondence, and short-term memory), and visuospatial ability were included. The sample consisted of 671 older Swedish adult participants of the OCTO Twin Study. Linear mixed models with random coefficients were used to analyse change patterns and BIC indexes were used to compare models. Results showed that the time to death model was the best option in analyses of change in all the cognitive measures considered (except for the Information Test). A significant cognitive decline over time was found for all variables. Individuals diagnosed with dementia had lower scores at the study entrance and a faster decline. More educated individuals performed better in all the measures of cognition at study entry than those with poorer education, but no differences were found in the rate of change. Differences were found in age, sex, or time to death at baseline across the different measures. These results support the terminal decline hypothesis when compared to models assuming that cognitive changes are driven by normative aging processes. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute on Aging of the National Institutes of Health under Award no. P01AG043362 for the Integrative Analysis of Longitudinal Studies of Aging (IALSA) Research Network. The Origins of Variance in the Old-Old (OCTO Twin Study) was supported by a grant from the National Institute on Aging (NIA: AG 08861). en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Journal of Aging Research en_US
dc.title Decline in Memory, Visuospatial Ability, and Crystalized Cognitive Abilities in Older Adults: Normative Aging or Terminal Decline? en_US
dc.type Article en_US
dc.description.scholarlevel Faculty en_US
dc.description.reviewstatus Reviewed en_US


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