Evolutionary classification of ammonium, nitrate, and peptide transporters in land plants

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dc.contributor.author Von Wittgenstein, Neil JJB
dc.contributor.author Le, Cuong H
dc.contributor.author Hawkins, Barbara J
dc.contributor.author Ehlting, Jürgen
dc.date.accessioned 2015-06-02T21:06:52Z
dc.date.available 2015-06-02T21:06:52Z
dc.date.copyright 2014 en_US
dc.date.issued 2014-01-20
dc.identifier.citation von Wittgenstein et al.: Evolutionary classification of ammonium, nitrate, and peptide transporters in land plants. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2014 14:11. en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/14/11
dc.identifier.uri http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-14-11
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/1828/6219
dc.description BioMed Central en_US
dc.description.abstract Background: Nitrogen uptake, reallocation within the plant, and between subcellular compartments involves ammonium, nitrate and peptide transporters. Ammonium transporters are separated into two distinct families (AMT1 and AMT2), each comprised of five members on average in angiosperms. Nitrate transporters also form two discrete families (NRT1 and NRT2), with angiosperms having four NRT2s, on average. NRT1s share an evolutionary history with peptide transporters (PTRs). The NRT1/PTR family in land plants usually has more than 50 members and contains also members with distinct activities, such as glucosinolate and abscisic acid transport. Results: Phylogenetic reconstructions of each family across 20 land plant species with available genome sequences were supplemented with subcellular localization and transmembrane topology predictions. This revealed that both AMT families diverged prior to the separation of bryophytes and vascular plants forming two distinct clans, designated as supergroups, each. Ten supergroups were identified for the NRT1/PTR family. It is apparent that nitrate and peptide transport within the NRT1/PTR family is polyphyletic, that is, nitrate and/or peptide transport likely evolved multiple times within land plants. The NRT2 family separated into two distinct clans early in vascular plant evolution. Subsequent duplications occurring prior to the eudicot/monocot separation led to the existence of two AMT1, six AMT2, 31 NRT1/PTR, and two NRT2 clans, designated as groups. Conclusion: Phylogenetic separation of groups suggests functional divergence within the angiosperms for each family. Distinct groups within the NRT1/PTR family appear to separate peptide and nitrate transport activities as well as other activities contained within the family, for example nitrite transport. Conversely, distinct activities, such as abscisic acid and glucosinolate transport, appear to have recently evolved from nitrate transporters. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship This work was supported by individual Discovery Grants from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) to JE and BJH. NJJBvW and CHL received graduate stipends from the NSERC Collaborative Research and Training Experience Program (CREATE) in Forests and Climate Change. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher BMC Evolutionary Biology en_US
dc.rights Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.5 Canada *
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.5/ca/ *
dc.subject Ammonium transporter (AMT1 and AMT2) en_US
dc.subject Nitrate transporter (NRT1 and NRT2) en_US
dc.subject Peptide transporter (PTR) en_US
dc.subject Gene family evolution en_US
dc.title Evolutionary classification of ammonium, nitrate, and peptide transporters in land plants en_US
dc.type Article en_US
dc.description.scholarlevel Faculty en_US
dc.description.reviewstatus Reviewed en_US

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