HetroTraffSim: A Macroscopic Heterogeneous Traffic Flow Simulator for Road Bottlenecks




Zeb, Ali
Khattak, Khurram S.
Rehmat Ullah, Muhammad
Khan, Zawar H.
Gulliver, Thomas A.

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Future Transportation


Smart mobility is crucial for future smart cities. Traffic simulation software (TSS) is an important tool for efficient planning and management of road networks to achieve this goal. Many TSS tools have been developed for both microscopic and macroscopic homogenous traffic flow. However, only two (SUMO and HetroSim) are applicable to heterogeneous traffic. In this paper, HetroTraffSim is proposed to simulate macroscopic heterogeneous traffic flows at road bottlenecks. It is developed using the Unity3D engine and is based on a second-order traffic flow model. It is evaluated for a 360 m road segment on University Road, Peshawar, Pakistan. This segment contains a 78.5 m bottleneck which causes traffic congestion. This bottleneck is due to the construction of a pedestrian overhead bridge which reduces the three-lane road to two lanes. HetroTraffSim provides normalized traffic velocity, average traffic density, traffic flow, and time, as well as the temporal and spatial evolution of traffic. The results obtained show that a change in the distance headway affects the traffic flow, velocity, and density. Further, HetroTraffSim can be extended to automated traffic flows using raycasting. It can easily be used to create realistic traffic scenarios and the computational complexity is low due to the small-degree polynomials employed. HetroTraffSim can be used by traffic planners to improve traffic flow and public safety.



traffic simulation, simulations software, heterogeneous traffic, road bottleneck, lane change, Unity3D, raycasting


Zeb, A., Khattak, K. S., Ullah, M. R., Khan, Z., & Gulliver, T. A. (2023). HetroTraffSim: A Macroscopic Heterogeneous Traffic Flow Simulator for Road Bottlenecks. Future Transportation, 3(1), 368–383. https://doi.org/10.3390/futuretransp3010022