Utilizing additive manufacturing to produce organ mimics and imaging phantoms




Karaman, Dmitri
Willerth, Stephanie

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The complex geometries and material properties necessary for generating accurate organ mimics require new procedures and methods to fully utilize current technologies. The increased accessibility of 3D printers, along with more specialized bioprinters, allow the creation of highly tunable models of various body parts. Three-dimensional printing can reduce lead-time on custom parts, produce structures based on imaging data in patients, and generate a test bench for novel surgical methods. This technical note will cover three unique case studes and offer insights for how 3D printing can be used for lab research. Each case follows a unique design process in comparison to traditional manufacturing workflows as they required significantly more iterative design. The strengths of different printing technologies, design choices, and structural/chemical requirements all influence the design process. Utilization of in-house manufacturing allows for greater flexibility and lower lead-times for novel research applications. Detailed discussions of these design processes will help reduce some of the major barriers to entry for these technologies and provide options for researchers working in the field.



bioprinting, imaging, phantoms, biomaterials, spinal cord injury, additive manufacturing


Karaman, D. & Willerth, S. M. (2023). “Utilizing additive manufacturing to produce organ mimics and imaging phantoms.” Surgeries, 4(1), 58-72. https://doi.org/10.3390/surgeries4010008