Fast prime field arithmetic using novel large integer representation




Alhazmi, Bader Hammad

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Large integers are used in several key areas such as RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) public-key cryptographic system and elliptic curve public-key cryptographic system. To achieve higher levels of security requires larger key size and this becomes a limiting factor in prime finite field GF(p) arithmetic using large integers because operations on large integers suffer from the long carry propagation problem. Large integer representation has direct impact on the efficiency of the calculations and the hardware and software implementations. Attempts to use different representations such as residue number systems suffer from their own problems. In this dissertation, we propose a novel and efficient attribute-based large integer representation scheme capable of efficiently representing the large integers that are commonly used in cryptography such as the five NIST primes and the Pierpont primes used in supersingular isogeny Diffie-Hellman (SIDH) used in post-quantum cryptography. Moreover, we propose algorithms for this new representation to perform arithmetic operations such as conversions from and to binary representation, two’s complement, left-shift, numbers comparison, addition/subtraction, modular addition/subtraction, modular reduction, multiplication, and modular multiplication. Extensive numerical simulations and software implementations are done to verify the performance of the new number representation. Results show that the attribute-based large integer arithmetic operations are done faster in our proposed representation when compared with binary and residue number representations. This makes the proposed representation suitable for cryptographic applications on embedded systems and IoT devices with limited resources for better security level.



Large Integer Arithmetic, Number Representation, Fast Modular Multipliers, Fast Multipliers, Large Integer Modular Multiplication, Fast Large Integer Modular Addition, Fast Large Integer Addition