Towards voltage-gated ion channels synthesized by solid-phase organic synthesis

dc.contributor.authorLuong, Horace
dc.contributor.supervisorFyles, Thomas M. of Chemistryen_US of Philosophy Ph.D.en_US
dc.description.abstractThe goal of this thesis was to develop a method for efficiently synthesizing a large suite of asymmetric oligoester ion channel-forming compounds. A solid-phase organic synthesis (SPOS) approach on Wang resin was used to generate the ion channel candidates. A follow-on goal is to survey the compounds produced to uncover structure-related controls on ion transport activity. Two classes of building blocks were used to generate the oligoesters – head groups and cores. The core building blocks were three omega-hydroxy acid derivatives six, eight and twelve carbons in length and the alcohol protected as a tetrahydropyranyl ether. The head group building blocks were either a glutaric acid monoester derivative of varying lipophilicity (12 to 16 carbon long alkyl tail) or a beta-hydroxy acid derivative; these building blocks used a tert-butyldimethylsilyl ether for alcohol protection. Optimized conditions for building block coupling, deprotection, and product cleavage were first established by the generation of dimeric and trimeric products. The building blocks were coupled using diisopropylcarbodiimide/ dimethylaminopyridine conditions. The deprotection of the tetrahydropyranyl ether group from the alcohol used a dilute acid solution in methanol and dichloromethane. A fluoride solution (from tetrabutylammonium fluoride) in tetrahydrofuran was used to deprotect the tert-butyldimethylsilyl ether group. Cleavage of the product synthesized on Wang resin was achieved by treatment with a trifluoroacetic acid/dichloromethane or ethereal hydrogen chloride solution. The products were then isolated by gel filtration. Mass spectrometry was used to identify the minor impurities which were quantified by proton nuclear magnetic resonance integrations. With the nine building blocks, many tetrameric and pentameric structures can be made, but a directed-library approach was used to address structure-activity related questions. Three pentameric oligoester products were the largest products synthesized to determine the scope and limitations of the SPOS methodology. The oligoester ion channel candidates were tested for ion transport activity using a 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid trisodium salt fluorescence vesicle assay. For each compound a pseudo-first order rate constant was derived at a particular concentration. A more useful normalized rate constant was calculated for an interpolated transporter concentration which allowed for transport activity comparison between compounds. The results from the fluorescence assay showed that some compounds and some isomers were substantially more active than others. There appeared to be an optimal core length and lipophilicity for relatively high activity. The aggregation of the compounds in buffer solution was probed using a pyrene fluorescence experiment. The solid-phase methodology was extended to include coupling of amino acids. A tryptophan derivative was made from one of the most active SPOS oligoester ion channel-forming compounds. The integrity of the molecules synthesized by SPOS which contain the tryptophan group could then be determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The fluorescence of the indole is quenched by acrylamide. By first equilibrating the vesicles with the tryptophan-containing oligoesters and then adding a fluorescence quencher, the resulting indole fluorescence was monitored as a function of quencher concentration. A Stern-Volmer plot was derived based on the quenching data which reported the possible orientations of the tryptophan-containing oligoester within the vesicle.en_US
dc.identifier.bibliographicCitationFyles, T. M.; Hu, C. W.; Luong, H. Journal of Organic Chemistry 2006, 71, 8545-8551.en_US
dc.rightsAvailable to the World Wide Weben_US
dc.subjectIon Channelsen_US
dc.subjectSolid-Phase Organic Synthesisen_US
dc.subjectIon Transporten_US
dc.subject.lcshUVic Subject Index::Sciences and Engineering::Chemistry::Chemistry, Organicen_US
dc.titleTowards voltage-gated ion channels synthesized by solid-phase organic synthesisen_US


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