Quantification of a lung cancer biomarker using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy




Cao, Guangyi

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Detecting lung cancer is di cult as it is hidden in the body, and current clinical methods are not elective at an early stage; the one-year survival rate after diagnosis in the World is just 29-33%. Acetyl amantadine (AcAm) is recognised as an exogeneous cancer biomarker because it is the product of a metabolic process known to be significantly up-regulated in cancerous cells. After ingestion, the an-tiparkinson and antiviral drug amantadine is acetylated in the body by the enzyme spermidine/spermine N1 acetyltransferase to give AcAm, which can be detected in patient’s urine. However, techniques previously used to quantify AcAm in urine, such as liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), are undesirable for clin- ical adoption due to high costs and long run times. Further costs and delays result from the requirement for solid phase extraction (SPE). Therefore, it is highly desired to lower the costs and delays in processing by exploring different quantification approaches, ideally without the need for SPE processing. In this thesis, I investigate the use of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to quantify AcAm in urinalysis. I prepare two kinds of Raman substrates with hydrophobic pocket surface capture agents beta -cyclodextrin (beta -CD) that work to extract the AcAm from the urine, followed by the surface enhanced Raman measurement using two kinds of Raman systems. The detection strategy is more economical than the currently used LC-MS approach, and enables development of an easy-to-use point-of-care tool that should provide a more rapid turnaround to the health care provider. The next step will be to use real samples. If it is achieved, it will be a promising step in early cancer diagnostics.



cancer detection, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, analytical chemistry, urinalysis