Macroscopic modelling of the phase interface in non-equilibrium evaporation/condensation based on the Enskog-Vlasov equation




Jahandideh, Hamidreza

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Considerable jump and slip phenomena are observed at the non-equilibrium phase interface in microflows. Hence, accurate modelling of the liquid-vapour interface transport mechanisms that matches the observations is required, e.g. in applications such as micro/nanotechnology and micro fuel cells. In the sharp interface model, the classical Navier-Stokes-Fourier (NSF) equations can be used in the liquid and vapour phases, while the interface resistivities describe the jump and slip phenomena at the interface. However, resistivities are challenging to find from the measurements, and most of the classical kinetic theories consider them as constants. One possible approach is to determine them from a model that resolves the phase interface. In order to resolve the interface and the transport processes at and in front of the interface in high resolutions, there are two ways in general, microscopic or macroscopic. The microscopic studies are based either on molecular dynamics (MD) or kinetic models, such as the Enskog-Vlasov (EV) equation. The EV equation modifies the Boltzmann equation by considering dense gas effects, such as the interaction forces between the particles and their finite size. It can be solved by the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, which considers sample particles that stand in for thousands to hundred thousands of particles and determine most likely collisions based on interaction probabilities, but it is time-consuming and costly. Here, a closed set of 26-moment equations is numerically solved to resolve the liquid-vapour interface macroscopically while considering the dense gas and phase change effects. The 26-moment set of equations is derived by Struchtrup & Frezzotti as an approximation of the EV equation using Grad's moment method. The macroscopic moment equations resolve the phase interface in a high resolution competitive to the microscopic studies. The resolved interface visualizes the interface structure and the changes of the system variables between the two phases at the interface. The 26-moment equations are solved for a one-dimensional steady-state system for non-equilibrium evaporation/condensation process. Then, solutions are used to find the jump and slip conditions at the interface, which leads to determining the interface resistivities at different interface temperatures and non-equilibrium strengths from the Linear Irreversible Thermodynamics (LIT). The interface resistivities show their dependence on the temperature of the liquid at the interface as well as the strength of the non-equilibrium process. As a result, in further studies, similar systems can be modelled using the sharp interface method with the appropriate jump conditions at the phase interface that can be found from the determined EV interface resistivities.



Non-equilibrium thermodynamics, Evaporation/condensation process, Liquid-vapour interface, Enskog-Vlasov (EV) equation, Interface resistivity, Micro/Nanoscale systems, Jump and slip conditions, Temperature jump, Linear irreversible Thermodynamics (LIT)