Fluency as a bridge to comprehension: an efficacy study of the RAVE-O literacy program




Schmidt, Maxine Katarina

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a theoretically-grounded reading intervention in children with reading difficulties. Participants were between the ages of 8 to 10 years from a community-based program for children with learning disabilities and a single-case research (SCR) design was employed. An adapted version of the RAVE-O intervention was delivered which focused on instruction in phonology, orthography, semantics, syntax, and morphology in building children’s word-level fluency skills. Norm-referenced word-level reading, decoding, and reading comprehension measures were collected at pre- and post-test, and progress monitoring data via curriculum-based measures were also collected. Overall results based on percentage of non-overlapping data (PND) analyses indicated moderate effects for decoding fluency and reading comprehension and small effects for decoding accuracy and reading fluency. Implications for educators and professionals working with elementary school students identified with reading difficulties are discussed.



literacy, reading, reading difficulties, intervention, education, fluency, comprehension, decoding