Comparison of Canada and Hong Kong-China through hierarchical linear models: the relations among students' self-beliefs in math, learning environment at school, and math performance




Gu, Zhimei

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The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the relationships among students' self-beliefs in mathematics, learning environment at school, and math achievement, at student and school levels, in Canada and Hong Kong-China. Hierarchical linear modeling was utilized to analyze the data from the Programme for International Student Assessment 2003. It was found that school learning environment has more effect on school math achievement in Hong Kong than in Canada. Canada has stronger relationships between students' self-beliefs in math and their math performance than Hong Kong. School variations of self-efficacy effect and self-concept effect are accountable by school learning environment in Hong Kong, but not in Canada. Recommendations for improving students' math performance and future research are provided.



mathematics, study and teaching, secondary school, Canada, Hong Kong, China