# Homomorphisms of (j, k)-mixed graphs

## Date

2015-08-28

## Authors

Duffy, Christopher

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## Abstract

A mixed graph is a simple graph in which a subset of the edges have been assigned directions to form arcs. For non-negative integers j and k, a (j, k)−mixed graph is a mixed graph with j types of arcs and k types of edges. The collection of (j, k)−mixed graphs contains simple graphs ((0,1)−mixed graphs), oriented graphs ((1,0)-mixed graphs) and k−edge-coloured graphs ((0, k)−mixed graphs).
A homomorphism is a vertex mapping from one (j,k)−mixed graph to another in which edge type is preserved, and arc type and direction are preserved. An m−colouring of a (j, k)−mixed graph is a homomorphism from that graph to a target with m vertices. The (j, k)−chromatic number of a (j, k)−mixed graph is the least m such that an m−colouring exists. When (j, k) = (0, 1), we see that these definitions are consistent with the usual definitions of graph homomorphism and graph colouring. Similarly, when (j, k) = (1, 0) and (j, k) = (0, k) these definitions are consistent with the usual definitions of homomorphism and colouring for oriented graphs and k−edge-coloured graphs, respectively.
In this thesis we study the (j, k)−chromatic number and related parameters for different families of graphs, focussing particularly on the (1, 0)−chromatic number, more commonly called the oriented chromatic number, and the (0, k)−chromatic number.
In examining oriented graphs, we provide improvements to the upper and lower bounds for the oriented chromatic number of the families of oriented graphs with maximum degree 3 and 4. We generalise the work of Sherk and MacGillivray on the 2−dipath chromatic number, to consider colourings in which vertices at the ends of
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a directed path of length at most k must receive different colours. We examine the implications of the work of Smolikova on simple colourings to study of the oriented chromatic number of the family of oriented planar graphs.
In examining k−edge-coloured graphs we provide improvements to the upper and lower bounds for the family of 2−edge-coloured graphs with maximum degree 3. In doing so, we define the alternating 2−path chromatic number of k−edge-coloured graphs, a parameter similar in spirit to the 2−dipath chromatic number for oriented graphs. We also consider a notion of simple colouring for k−edge-coloured graphs, and show that the methods employed by Smolikova ́ for simple colourings of oriented graphs may be adapted to k−edge-coloured graphs.
In addition to considering vertex colourings, we also consider incidence colourings of both graphs and digraphs. Using systems of distinct representatives, we provide a new characterisation of the incidence chromatic number. We define the oriented incidence chromatic number and find, by way of digraph homomorphism, a connection between the oriented incidence chromatic number and the chromatic number of the underlying graph. This connection motivates our study of the oriented incidence chromatic number of symmetric complete digraphs.

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## Keywords

graph theory, coloring, homomorphism, algorithms, complexity