Multilevel analysis of mathematics literacy in Canada and Japan : the effects of sex differences, teacher support, and the school learning environment




Ram, Anita

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In this study, the effects of student and school level variables on the mathematics achievement of 15 year old students in Canada and Japan were investigated. Participants included 27,953 students from Canada and 4,707 students from Japan. The student level variables used in this analysis included student sex, perceived teacher support, and socioeconomic status, and the school level variables included principals' perceptions of both. student and teacher morale and commitment, and student and teacher related factors affecting school climate. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze data from the Programme for International Student Assessment 2003. The proportion of variance in mathematics scores attributable to schools was 20%, in Canada and 54% in Japan. In both countries, higher ratings by principals on both student commitment and morale, and student-related factors affecting school climate were linked to higher mathematics achievement. Implications for educators and suggestions for future research are discussed.



mathematics, secondary, Canada, Japan