Wireless Channel Estimation With Applications to Secret Key Generation




Movahedian, Alireza

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This research investigates techniques for iterative channel estimation to maximize channel capacity and communication security. The contributions of this dissertation are as follows: i) An accurate, low-complexity approach to pilot-assisted fast-fading channel estimation for single-carrier modulation with a turbo equalizer and a decoder is proposed. The channel is estimated using a Kalman filter (KF) followed by a zero-phase filter (ZPF) as a smoother. The combination of the ZPF with the KF of the channel estimator makes it possible to reduce the estimation error to near the Wiener bound. ii) A new semi-blind channel estimation technique is introduced for multiple-input-multiple-output channels. Once the channel is estimated using a few pilots, a low-order KF is employed to progressively predict the channel gains for the upcoming blocks. iii) The capacity of radio channels is investigated when iterative channel estimation, data detection, and decoding are employed. By taking the uncertainty in decoded data bits into account, the channel Linear Minimum Mean Square Error (LMMSE) estimator of an iterative receiver with a given pilot ratio is obtained. The derived error value is then used to derive a bound on capacity. It is shown that in slow fading channels, iterative processing provides only a marginal advantage over non-iterative approach to channel estimation. Knowing the capacity gain from iterative processing versus purely pilot-based channel estimation helps a designer to compare the performance of an iterative receiver against a non-iterative one and select the best balance between performance and cost. iv) A Radio channel is characterized by random parameters which can be used to generate shared secret keys by the communicating parties when the channel is estimated. This research studies upper bounds on the rate of the secret keys extractable from iteratively estimated channels. Various realistic scenarios are considered where the transmission is half-duplex and/or the channel is sampled under the Nyquist rate. The effect of channel sampling interval, fading rate and noise on the key rate is demonstrated. The results of this research can be beneficial for the design and analysis of reliable and secure mobile wireless systems.



Wireless networks, Secret key generation, Channel estimation, Kalman filter, MIMO channels, Wireless channel capacity, Turbo equalization, Physical-layer security, MIMO-OFDM