The Experiences of LGBTQ+ Migrant Youth with Discrimination in Canada: A Systematic Review




Kakuru, Doris
Matthiesen, Amarens
Montiel, Andrés E.
Sinclair-Palm, Julia H.
Wright, Laura H. V.

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University of Victoria


Relative to the general population, members of LGBTQ+1 communities experience disproportionately higher rates of violence, stigma, and discrimination. When discrimination is considered in the context of racialization and migration, even higher rates of discrimination can be seen. Discrimination can take many forms, including gender- and/-or sexual harassment, in which derogatory language is used toward members of LGBTQ+ communities, for example. Discrimination may also manifest itself in restricting one’s access to housing or employment opportunities. Given the pervasive nature of discrimination, it is crucial to explore how various forms of discrimination can occur at the intersections between sexuality, gender identity, race, and ethnicity manifests among migrants2 who identify as LGBTQ+. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the experiences of discrimination among LGBTQ+ individuals with a migration background in Canada, particularly among youth. Gaining a deeper understanding of LGBTQ+ migrant youth experiences is particularly important given immigrants will represent up to 30% of Canada’s population by 2036 (Government of Canada, 2023). Moreover, 22% of the Canadian population currently self-identifies as a ‘visible minority’ and 4% identify as LGBTQ+ (Statistics Canada, 2022). Therefore, there is a significant proportion of LGBTQ+ migrants, including youth, in the Canadian population who are at risk of discrimination and violence based on the intersection between gender, gender identity, race and/or ethnicity. Further research is warranted regarding how LGBTQ+ migrants youth experience various forms of discrimination before, during and after migrating to Canada.



LGBTQ+, migrant youth, discrimination, Canada, systematic review


Kakuru, D., Matthiesen, A., Montiel, A.E., Sinclair-Palm, J.H., & Wright, L.H.V.