Comparing the relationships between mathematics achievement and student characteristics in Canada and Hong Kong through HLM




Hsu, Jui-Chen

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This study investigates and compares the effects of student characteristics-socioeconomic status, sex, family structure and immigration background- on 15-year-old mathematics achievement in Canada and Hong Kong through HLM. Using PISA data in 2003, the results showed that 20% and 49% of the variance in mathematics achievement was accounted for by schools in Canada and Hong Kong. respectively. All student-level variables were significant in Canada model except family structure whereas only sex and immigration background were significant in Hong Kong model. At school level, the significant school aggregate variables had much larger effects on school average mathematics achievement in Hong Kong than those in Canada. The findings suggest that school composition has an effect on mathematics achievement over and above that of individual characteristics.



mathematics, study and teaching, Canada, Hong Kong, China