Lorentz nanoplasmonics for nonlinear generation




Rahimi, Esmaeil

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Plasmonic metasurfaces enable functionalities that extend beyond the possibilities of classical optical materials and as a result, have gained significant research interest over the years. This thesis aims towards introducing plasmonic metamaterials and metasurfaces, a two-dimensional subset of metamaterials. The thesis also provides insights into the nonlinear optical responses from subwavelength metallic nanostructures manifesting as extraordinary physical phenomena like the second harmonic generation (SHG). The hydrodynamic Drude model is a theory that characterizes electron conduction in a hydrodynamic way to predict optical responses of metals. The thesis discusses the various contributions to the second-order optical nonlinearities from the terms in the hydrodynamic model: Coulomb, convection, and the Lorentz magnetic force. The significance of these terms, specifically the Lorentz magnetic term, is validated in contrast with existing research. The details of the work carried out to achieve a significant contribution to SHG from the Lorentz magnetic term are provided. A dominant Lorentz magnetic force for SHG was achieved through engineering T-shaped aperture arrays milled into a thin gold film. The dimensions of these structures were tuned for fundamental wavelength resonance. The structures exhibit both magnetic and electric field enhancements at the plasmonic resonance. Furthermore, a revised theoretical model is developed to accurately predict both linear and nonlinear optical responses of metamaterials. The model is based on the hydrodynamic Drude model and nonlinear scattering theory. Results from the finite difference time domain simulations performed on the metasurface are presented. It is observed that the T-shaped structure provides 65% greater nonlinear generation from the Lorentz magnetic term than the sum of the other two hydrodynamic terms. The influence of incident beam polarization on SHG conversion efficiency was also investigated. It was discovered that even though the contributions of hydrodynamic (Coulomb and convection) terms are maximum at 0◦ and 90◦, the metasurface shows maximum SHG intensity at 45◦ which indicates a dominant Lorentz magnetic term. Experimental validation was performed using the fabricated metasurface and a good agreement between the experiment and theoretical calculations was observed. Another aspect of the magnetic Lorentz force contribution, Bethe’s aperture theory was evaluated for a circular aperture at off-normal incident light. It is shown that the Lorentz force dominates the SHG by an order of magnitude at angled incidence where the generation is maximized. The angular dependence was observed to match the magnetic and electric dipole interaction effects as predicted from Bethe’s theory. The revised theory developed in this thesis predicts the linear and nonlinear optical responses of metamaterials including their angular dependency. The analysis and numerical calculations for a circular aperture agree well with past experiments. To conclude, the thesis provides an outlook on future developments in the field of nonlinear plasmonic research with regards to the development of highly efficient nonlinear metasurfaces through optimization of the Lorentz contributions. An insight into the recent developments in nanofabrication capabilities, design methodologies, nano-characterization techniques, modern electromagnetic simulations is discussed as avenues for future research in nanophotonic and nanoplasmonic device design and development.



metamaterial, metasurfaces, plasmonics, second harmonic generation, Lorentz, nonlinear optics, Hydrodynamic theory