A Randomized Controlled Trial Exploring the Feasibility of Multimedia-Based Exercise Programs on Older Adult Adherence and Physical Activity




Yao, Christopher

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Purpose: Transitioning into retirement may be a suitable period to help adults establish an active lifestyle. One innovative approach to promote PA may be through multimedia-based programs. This experiment aimed to explore the feasibility DVD and videogame-based exercise programs in promoting physical activity (PA) in adults transitioning into retirement. Underlying motivations, functional fitness, quality of life, and elicited beliefs from participating in the exercise programs were also explored. Methods: Twenty-seven adults were randomized into either a nine-week exercise DVD (n = 9), exergame (n = 9), or waitlisted control group (n = 9). Main outcomes include adherence was based on attendance during the in-lab component and participant logs during the in-home component. PA levels were measured through accelerometery and assessed at baseline, four-, nine- and 12-weeks. Secondary outcomes related to motivation were assessed at baseline, three- and nine-weeks. Tertiary outcomes such as physiological/functional fitness and quality of life outcomes were assessed at pre- and post-intervention. Results: During the in-lab portion, t-tests showed that adherence was slightly higher in the exergame group than the DVD group (t16 = -0.06, p = .96; d = .31). Repeated measures of analysis showed that the group x time interaction for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (F2,24 = 0.87, p = .52; η2 = .05), while overall PA saw negligible changes (F2,24 = 0.16, p = .85; η2 = .01). At the end of the intervention, overall adherence was similar between both exercise groups (t16 = -0.06, p = .96; d = .03). The group by time interaction effect yielded a moderate effect size for MVPA (F2,24 = 1.07, p = .36; η2 = .08) and overall PA (F2,24 = 1.11, p = .35; η2 = .08). Overall PA only increased in the exergame group (d = .74). The exergame group saw major decreases in instrumental attitude (d = .64), injunctive norm (d = .79), perceived behavioural control (d = .40) and intention (d = .90). Both exercise groups enhanced strength, mobility, and aerobic endurance outcomes (d = .33-.98), as well as several quality of life domains (d = .32-.89). At the post-intervention follow-up, both exercise groups were more active than the control group (d = .49-1.03). Two-thirds of the DVD group adopted DVD-based exercise, while a third of exergame group adopted videogame-based exercise. Conclusions: With a high adoption rate, DVD-based exercise programs may be a feasible and acceptable approach to promote PA levels. Participants in both groups were generally satisfied, indicating that the exercise program was enjoyable, comprehensive, and a simple and convenient way to exercise at home. Improvements to important functional and quality of life domains were also identified. Further research will be required to fully test the effectiveness of exercise DVDs and exergames on adherence and PA behaviour in adults transitioning into retirement.



Physical Activity, Exercise, Older Adults, Retirement, Multimedia, DVD, Exergame, Exercise Video Game, Active Video Game, Intervention, Randomized Controlled Trial, Randomized Control Trial, Feasibility Trial, Exercise Adherence