The synthesis, thermal and photochemical properties of cyclophanedienes and dihydropyrenes with different internal substituents




Ayub, Khurshid

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A series of cyclophanedienes (CPDs) with different internal functional groups were synthesized. Dicyano CPD 85, cyano methyl CPD 127 and phenylethynyl/methyl CPD 138 were synthesized from bis-bromomethyl aromatics via a thiacyclophane- thiomethylcyclophane route. Diformyl cyclophanediene 152 and bis(hydroxymethyl) CPD 159 were obtained by the functional group transformation of CPDs 85 and 152 respectively. Cyclophanedienes with internal olefinic groups were obtained by three different routes: the best was the functional group transformations of the dicyano mercaptomethylcyclophane 99 followed by a Hoffmann elimination. Using the best synthetic route, CPDs with substituted vinyl groups such as alkylvinyl (162, 163, 178 and 198), butadienyl (184, 185 and 186), styryl (202, 203 and 204), nitro-substituted styryl (210, 211 and 212), methoxy-substituted styryl (218, 219 and 220) and methyl-substituted styryl (226, 227 and 228) were synthesized. Cyclophanediene 235 with an internal ethynyl (alkynyl) group was also synthesized by a similar synthetic route; however, it gave two major interesting side products; vinyl-ethynyl CPD 237 and vinyl-styryl CPD 240. The cyclophanedienes except dicyano 85, cyano-methyl 127 and diformyl 152 were converted to their corresponding dihydropyrenes both thermally and photochemically. Dicyano CPD 85 and cyano-methyl CPD 127 were converted photochemically to the DHPs 86 and 128, respectively. Diformyl CPD 152 underwent decomposition in any attempt to transform it into the DHP 154 either thermally or photochemically. Diphenylethynyl DHPs 141 and 247 were obtained by the Sonogashira coupling of diethynyl DHP 236. The Eglinton coupling reaction was used to achieve butadiynyl DHPs 257 and 254. Naphthoyl DHPs 248 and 250 were synthesized by the Friedel-Crafts acylation reaction of DHPs 179 and 167, respectively. All compounds were characterized by NMR, IR, and UV spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Dicyano CPD 85 was quite stable towards thermal isomerization to the dihydropyrene 86 and showed a calculated half life of ~ 36 years (three orders of magnitude higher than that of benzo CPD 53 i.e., 7.3 days) at room temperature, whereas CPDs 127 (cyano methyl), 138 (phenylethynyl/methyl) and 152 (diformyl) showed half lives less than a month at 20 oC. Cyclophanedienes with internal ethynyl and substituted vinyl groups were quite stable thermally and showed half lives of several years (1-16 years) at room temperature. CPDs with cis substituted internal vinyl groups were thermally more stable than their trans counterparts. Electron withdrawing substituent (NO2) at the para positions of the internal styryl groups accelerate, whereas electron donating groups (MeO, Me) decelerate the thermal return reaction. Naphthoyl CPDs 249 and 251 isomerized at rates about 6-12 times faster than their non naphthoylated analogues 178 and 166 respectively. DHPs with internal ethenyl (167, 238 and 241), substituted ethynyl (139, 141 and 247) and trans substituted vinyl (199, 207, 215, 223 and 231) groups failed to open under visible light irradiation. Dicyano DHP 86, diethynyl DHP 236 and the unsymmetrical isomers of internal olefinic CPDs (206, 214, 222 and 230) formed photostationary states (pss). Disubstituted vinyl (179) and cis substituted vinyl DHPs (164, 205, 213, 221 and 229) opened completely; however their opening rates although faster than the parent 43, were 4-6 times slower than the benzo DHP 47. Introduction of an electron withdrawing substituent on the internal styryl group decelerated the visible opening reaction whereas electron donating groups accelerated it. 2-Naphthoyl divinyl DHP 250 opened at rates quite comparable to those of benzo DHP 47 whereas 2-naphthoyl diisobutenyl 248 opened about 25 times faster than the benzo DHP. The [1,5]-sigmatropic rearrangement of the internal nitrile (DHPs 86 and 128) and formyl (DHP 153) groups was observed. The sigmatropic rearrangement of the nitrile group in 86 was quite favorable in CDCl3 (Eact = 23.4 + 0.7 kcal/mol) compared to benzene (Eact = 28.6 + 1.2 kcal/mol). Formyl groups showed a much higher migration aptitude and Eact is estimated to be < 20 kcal/mol in any solvent. In this study, the best switch pair obtained was naphthoyl diisobutyl 248/249 which in comparison with previously the best switch pair 47/53 (benzo) showed much higher stability of the cyclophanediene (two orders of magnitude); moreover, the dihydropyrene opened about 25 times faster as well and is one of the best new photochromes yet.



Photoswitches, Dihydopyrenes, Thermal Isomerization, Photoopening, Crystallography, Synthesis, Cyclophanedienes