Synthesis and reactivity of palladium complexes that contain redox-active verdazyl ligands




Sanz, Corey A.

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This thesis presents the synthesis, characterization and reactivity of a series of palladium complexes that contain redox-active verdazyl ligands. This work was motivated by the possibility of discovering new and interesting reactivity that may eventually lead to the development of new chemical reactions. A bidentate verdazyl radical ligand that contains an aryl phosphine was synthesized. Reaction of this ligand with (PhCN)2PdCl2 yielded a square planar (verdazyl)PdCl2 complex. Structural and spectroscopic data suggest that this compound consists of a ligand-centered radical coordinated to a Pd(II) center. The radical complex was chemically reduced by one-electron to generate a binuclear chloride-bridged [(verdazyl)PdCl]2 complex. In this reduced complex, both metals were still Pd(II) and the verdazyl ligand was determined to be in its singly reduced, monoanionic charge state. The original radical PdCl2 complex could be regenerated via one-electron oxidation of the reduced complex using PhICl2. The verdazyl ligands in the reduced complex could also be reversibly protonated to generate “leuco” verdazyl complex (verdazyl-H)PdCl2. Reaction of the radical (verdazyl)PdCl2 complex with water triggers a ligand-centered redox disproportionation reaction. A series of bis(verdazyl) palladium complexes were synthesized using a bidentate pyridine-substituted verdazyl ligand. Reaction of two equivalents of radical ligand with (CH3CN)4Pd2+ yielded a (verdazyl)2Pd(solvent)2+ complex (solvent = CH3CN or DMSO). In this complex, one verdazyl radical ligand chelates to palladium and the other binds as a monodentate ligand. Two-electron reduction of this complex generated a (verdazyl)2Pd complex in which two monoanionic verdazyl ligands are bound to a central Pd(II) ion. This reduced complex could also be made via reaction of 0.5 equivalents of Pd(0)2(dba)3 with two equivalents of radical ligand. In this reaction, the metal is oxidized by two electrons and each ligand is reduced by a single electron. Two-electron oxidation of the reduced complex in the presence of DMSO yielded the original bis(radical)complex, (verdazyl)2Pd(DMSO)2+. Chlorination of the reduced complex using one equivalent of PhICl2 (two-electron oxidation) resulted in dissociation of one verdazyl ligand to afford a 1:1 mixture of free verdazyl : (verdazyl)PdCl2, in which both of the verdazyls are neutral radicals. Reaction of the reduced complex with 0.5 equivalents of PhICl2 (one-electron oxidation) yielded a (verdazyl)2PdCl complex that contained a bidentate reduced verdazyl ligand and a monodentate radical ligand. All three of the oxidation reactions described above adhere to ligand-centered redox chemistry. Reaction of the reduced (verdazyl)2Pd complex with excess HCl resulted in protonation of both the anionic verdazyl ring and the pyridyl group to generate a leuco/pyridinium tetrachloropalladate salt, (verdazyl-H2)2(PdCl4). The protonated salt could be converted back to the original (verdazyl)2Pd complex by deprotonation with water. Palladium complexes of a tridentate NNN-chelating verdazyl ligand were prepared and their redox chemistry was explored. Reaction of the radical ligand with (CH3CN)4Pd2+ yielded radical complex (verdazyl)Pd(NCCH3)2+. The tridentate ligand was also prepared in its reduced, leuco form (verdazyl-H). Reaction of the leuco verdazyl with (CH3CN)2PdCl2 generated HCl and a (verdazyl)PdCl complex in which the ligand is in its monoanionic charge state. The reduced (verdazyl)PdCl complex was reacted with AgBF4 to afford (verdazyl)Pd(NCCH3)+ via chloride abstraction; the verdazyl remained in its reduced charge state following the reaction. Both reduced complexes (chloro and acetonitrile) were oxidized by a single electron to afford the corresponding radical complexes. These radical complexes could be reduced by a single electron to regenerate the original reduced complexes. Like the previous two projects, all of the redox chemistry was ligand-centered. The reactivity of these complexes with primary amines was also explored. Reaction of radical complex (verdazyl)Pd(NCCH3)2+ with n-butylamine resulted in one-electron reduction of the verdazyl ligand. We were unable to determine the mechanism of the reaction, but the reactivity that was observed demonstrates the potential for verdazyl-palladium complexes to be used in the design of new radical reactions.



Redox-active ligand, Palladium, Redox, Verdazyl