Sex Differences in Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters of Transtibial Amputees




Carswell, Tess MR
Hordacre, Brenton G
Klimstra, Marc D
Giles, Joshua W.

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Journal of Applied Biomechanics


Research addressing lower limb amputee gait and prosthetic design often focuses on men, despite female lower limb amputees having different risk factors and lower success with their prosthetics overall. It is widely agreed that sex differences exist in able-bodied gait, but research analyzing sex differences in amputee gait is rare. This study compared male and female transtibial amputee gait to ascertain potential sex differences. Forty-five transtibial amputees were asked to walk at their self-selected speed, and spatiotemporal gait data were obtained. Both the mean and variability metric of parameters were analyzed for 10 male and 10 female participants. For all participants, amputated limbs had a shorter stance time, longer swing time, and larger step length. Females had a 10% shorter stance time and 26% larger normalized step and stride length than males. Female participants also walked over 20% faster than male participants. Finally, significant interactions were found in the mean and variability metric of stride velocity, indicating greater variability in women. These findings suggest that sex differences exist in transtibial amputee gait, offering possible explanations for the different comorbidities experienced by female lower limb amputees. These results have major implications for female amputees and for sex-specific research, rehabilitation, and prosthetic design.



sex-based research, female amputees, gait analysis, variability, prosthetic


Carswell, T., Hordacre, B.G., Kimstra, M.D., & Giles, J.W. (2022) "Sex Differences in Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters of Transtibial Amputees." Journal of Applied Biomechanics vol 39. 1.