Performance modelling and QoS support for wireless Ad Hoc networks

Date

2011-10-19

Authors

Khayyat, Khalid M. Jamil

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Abstract

We present a Markov chain analysis for studying the performance of wireless ad hoc networks. The models presented in this dissertation support an arbitrary backoff strategy. We found that the most important parameter affecting the performance of binary exponential backoff is the initial backoff window size. Our experimental results show that the probability of collision can be reduced when the initial backoff window size equals the number of terminals. Thus, the throughput of the system increases and, at the same time, the delay to transmit the frame is reduced. In our second contribution, we present a new analytical model of a Medium Access Control (MAC) layer for wireless ad hoc networks that takes into account frame retry limits for a four-way handshaking mechanism. This model offers flexibility to address some design issues such as the effects of traffic parameters as well as possible improvements for wireless ad hoc networks. It effectively captures important network performance characteristics such as throughput, channel utilization, delay, and average energy. Under this analytical framework, we evaluate the effect of the Request-to-Send (RTS) state on unsuccessful transmission probability and its effect on performance particularly when the hidden terminal problem is dominant, the traffic is heavy, or the data frame length is very large. By using our proposed model, we show that the probability of collision can be reduced when using a Request-to-Send/Clear- to-Send (RTS/CTS) mechanism. Thus, the throughput increases and, at the same time, the delay and the average energy to transmit the frame decrease. In our third contribution, we present a new analytical model of a MAC layer for wireless ad hoc networks that takes into account channel bit errors and frame retry limits for a two-way handshaking mechanism. This model offers flexibility to address design issues such as the effects of traffic parameters and possible improvements for wireless ad hoc networks. We illustrate that an important parameter affecting the performance of binary exponential backoff is the initial backoff window size. We show that for a low bit error rate (BER) the throughput increases and, at the same time, the delay and the average energy to transmit the frame decrease. Results show also that the negative acknowledgment-based (NAK-based) model proves more useful for a high BER. In our fourth contribution, we present a new analytical model of a MAC layer for wireless ad hoc networks that takes into account Quality of Service (QoS) of the MAC layer for a two-way handshaking mechanism. The model includes a high priority traffic class (class 1) and a low priority traffic class (class 2). Extension of the model to more QoS levels is easily accomplished. We illustrate an important parameter affecting the performance of an Arbitration InterFrame Space (AIFS) and small backoff window size limits. They cause the frame to start contending the channel earlier and to complete the backoff sooner. As a result, the probability of sending the frame increases. Under this analytical framework, we evaluate the effect of QoS on successful transmission probability and its effect on performance, particularly when high priority traffic is dominant.

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Keywords

Markov chain analysis, backoff window, MAC layer

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