# Computational and communication complexity of geometric problems

## Date

2021-07-26

## Authors

Hajiaghaei Shanjani, Sima

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## Abstract

In this dissertation, we investigate a number of geometric problems in different settings. We present lower bounds and approximation algorithms for geometric problems in sequential and distributed settings.
For the sequential setting, we prove the first hardness of approximation results for the following problems:
\begin{itemize}
\item Red-Blue Geometric Set Cover is APX-hard when the objects are axis-aligned rectangles.
\item Red-Blue Geometric Set Cover cannot be approximated to within $2^{\log^{1-1/{(\log\log m)^c}}m}$ in polynomial time for any constant $c < 1/2$, unless $P=NP$, when the given objects are $m$ triangles or convex objects. This shows that Red-Blue Geometric Set Cover is a harder problem than Geometric Set Cover for some class of objects.
\item Boxes Class Cover is APX-hard.
\end{itemize}
We also define MaxRM-3SAT, a restricted version of Max3SAT, and we prove that this problem is APX-hard. This problem might be interesting in its own right.\\
In the distributed setting, we define a new model, the fixed-link model, where each processor has a position on the plane and processors can communicate to each other if and only if there is an edge between them. We motivate the model and study a number of geometric problems in this model. We prove lower bounds on the communication complexity of the problems in the fixed-link model and present approximation algorithms for them.
We prove lower bounds on the number of expected bits required for any randomized algorithm in the fixed-link model with $n$ nodes to solve the following problems, when the communication is in the asynchronous KT1 model:
\begin{itemize}
\item $\Omega(n^2/\log n)$ expected bits of communication are required for solving Diameter, Convex Hull, or Closest Pair, even if the graph has only a linear number of edges.
\item $\Omega( min\{n^2,1/\epsilon\})$ expected bits of communications are required for approximating Diameter within a $1-\epsilon$ factor of optimal, even if the graph is planar.
\item $\Omega(n^2)$ bits of communications is required for approximating Closest Pair in a graph on an $[n^c] \times [n^c]$ grid, for any constant $c>1+1/(2\lg n)$, within $\frac{n^{c-1/2}}{4}-\epsilon$ factor of optimal, even if the graph is planar.
\end{itemize}
We also present approximation algorithms in geometric communication networks with $n$ nodes, when the communication is in the asynchronous CONGEST KT1 model:
\begin{itemize}
\item An $\epsilon$-kernel, and consequently $(1-\epsilon)$-\diamapprox~ and \ep -Approximate Hull with $O(\frac{n}{\sqrt{\epsilon}})$ messages plus the costs of constructing a spanning tree.
\item An $\frac{n^c}{\sqrt{\frac{k}{2}}}$-Approximate Closest Pair on an $[n^c] \times [n^c]$ grid , for a constant $c>1/2$, plus the cost of computing a spanning tree, for any $k\leq {n-1}$.
\end{itemize}
We also define a new version of the two-party communication problem, Path Computation, where two parties communicate through a path. We prove a lower bound on the communication complexity of this problem.

## Description

## Keywords

Hardness of Approximation, Computational Geometry, Red-Blue Geometric Set Cover, APX-hard, Inapproximability, Distributed Algorithms, CONGEST Model, Communication Complexity, Approximation Algorithms, Boxes Class Cover, Convex Hull, Diameter, Closest Pair, Geometric Communication Network