Benefits of End-User Involvement in Project Management for Health Information System Projects: A Scoping Review




Johnson, Laura A.

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Background: Effective project management is crucial to successfully implement new health information systems (HIS). End-users ultimately determine the success of projects. Past literature illustrates a lack of adequate and continual end-user involvement in these projects. Objective: To review the evidence-based literature for the benefits of involving end-users throughout the entire continuum of the project management process for HIS projects. Methods: A scoping review based on the methodological framework identified by Arskey and O’Malley (2005) was completed by: identifying the research question, identifying relevant studies, completing the study selection, charting of the data, and collating, summarizing and reporting of the results. Summaries include characteristics of the literature (i.e., type of findings, project methodology, and project management focus area), methodological quality assessment (RATS, STROBE, Delphi Survey Technique, and JBI Critical Appraisal checklists), and findings of the review as it relates to the study objective. Data was analysed using Microsoft Excel. Results: A total of 27 articles were included in this study (23 qualitative and four quantitative). Recommendations from the studies regarding end-user involvement in the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) varied. Four (14.81%) articles indicated involvement in the entire project life cycle (all 5 phases), 62.97% (n=17) of the articles indicated involvement in multiple phases (4 or less), 11.11% (n=3) in implementation, 7.41% (n=2) in design and development, and 3.70% (n=1) in analysis and requirements. Recommendations for end-user involvement in project management phases showed that 14.81% (n=4) of the articles indicated involvement in three phases, 48.15% (n=13) in two phases, and 37.04% (n=10) in one phase (25.93% (n=7) in plan and 11.11% (n=3) in execute). Measured outcomes indicated 22.22% (n=6) design factors, 18.52% (n=5) implementation factors, 14.81% (n=4) for both experiences/perceptions and system/mobile app, 11.11% (n=3) for both design/implementation factors and engagement, and 7.41% (n=2) system use/acceptance. Study measurements for qualitative studies indicated 78.26% (n=18) did not specify any definitions, while 21.74% (n=5) provided definitions relating to end-user involvement. Study measurements for quantitative studies indicated 75% (n=3) used questionnaire and 25% (n=1) did not specify. Definition of project success was only specified in 11.11% (n=3) of the articles. Twenty-five (92.59%) of the articles indicated end-user involvement being essential and having a positive impact on the project. Nine (33.33%) of the articles stated that end-user involvement correlated directly to the success of the project. There were three major themes across the 25 articles that noted end-user involvement as being essential: (1) ownership of solution (56%; n=14), (2) involvement is fundamental (28%; n=7), and (3) involvement early in the project (16%, n=4). Conclusion: There is still a gap in the literature and future studies must focus on identifying both the benefits of end-user involvement in HIS projects and the association of their involvement with project/system success. The major gaps include a lack of quantitative studies and an absence of measurements and/or definitions of end-user involvement and project success.



Project management process, End-user involvement, Health information system, Healthcare