Theses (Greek and Roman Studies)

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    Stelai in the Shaft Grave Period: A Case Study of Mycenae and Eleon
    (2024-01-05) Allen, Alyssa; van Damme, Trevor
    During the transition from the Middle Helladic to the Late Helladic period, a number of changes in funerary practice swept across mainland Greece, marking the beginning of the Mycenean period. Among these were the appearance of grave stelai at two sites, Mycenae and Eleon. These stelai are anomalous, and appear almost nowhere else throughout the entire Aegean Bronze Age. As they do not seem to fit in with local funerary practices, their cultural origin, purpose and meaning are open to question. This study analyses the grave stelai at Mycenae and Eleon, with particular attention to how they fit into the wider context of funerary practices of the Early Mycenaean period and how they functioned as a monument within their respective cemeteries. This includes an examination of the changes in funerary practice taking place during this period, a close study of the cemeteries in which the stelai appear, and an examination of the individual stelai themselves, including the iconography of the carved stelai. The results show that although the stelai are unique, they embody many of the larger trends taking place during the Early Mycenaean period, and are best viewed as experimental forays into a new tradition of monumentalized burials intended for generational reuse, ritual performance and elite funerary display within cemetery spaces. While intercultural influences are significant during this period, the totality of evidence points to the stelai being a phenomenon that developed internally within the Aegean mainland, rather than a product of wholesale external influence.
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    The Odyssey of Obsidian: A Re-evaluation of Chipped Stone in the Late Bronze Age Aegean
    (2023-09-01) Evans, Scott G.; Van Damme, Trevor
    During the Bronze Age, obsidian was widely exploited to fashion prismatic blades, small (c. 3–4 cm) parallel-sided cutting implements. Together with local cherts, which performed similarly, these chipped stone (or ‘lithic’) tools were used in domestic tasks, ranging from the processing of various materials in food preparation (e.g. organics, meat, bone) to aiding in craft production (e.g. textile weaving, basket-making, animal hide preparation). Thus, they were recognized as important cultural objects in the domestic sphere for many centuries. The prevailing assumption in scholarship is that these tools were gradually replaced with superior metal (bronze) implements following the Middle Bronze Age (c. 1700 BCE) before eventually becoming obsolete in the Late Bronze Age (LBA) (c. 1700–1050 BCE). Therefore, this thesis examines obsidian and chert tools from the LBA Mainland and Crete, situating them within the wider domestic economy and thereby demonstrating that this should now be considered an outdated viewpoint. Early to Middle Bronze Age chaîne opératoire models for the procurement, production, distribution, and consumption of chipped stone are tested for their applicability to the LBA. Overarching similarities with these models are noted, especially the predominance of regional, coastal production centres. Yet, while other scholars completely disassociate such mundane goods from the economic scope of the palaces, it is suggested here that lithic exchange and consumption were now structured within the socially, politically and economically complex palatial world, including via the use of coastal production centres. That is not to say that the obsidian trade became elite-controlled, but it is significant that emporia were centralized at palatially-sponsored port installations like Romanou and Kalamianos. Ultimately, in presenting a new assemblage of chipped stone from Mycenaean Eleon (central Greece), a contextual analysis from an elite domestic residence, the Northwest Complex, argues that obsidian and chert tools continued to be imported and manufactured throughout the later stages of the LBA despite significant sociopolitical and economic upheaval caused by the fall of the palaces. Supported by evidence from contemporary sites on Crete and the Mainland, this demonstrates that obsidian and chert tools remained quintessential components of the domestic tool kit which featured prominently alongside tools in other mediums (including bone, ground stone and, most significantly, bronze implements). Moreover, a technological analysis of the obsidian and chert tools reveals regional variances in chipped stone usage between the Argolid (south-central Greece), Messenia (southwestern Greece), and Boeotia (central Greece). For instance, two important nuances observed at Eleon are the consumption of chert blades at a rate much higher than other Mycenaean sites, and the popularity of chert sickle elements in the early 12th century BCE. While both strategies indicate strategies in local resource acquisition different from other areas, the latter may allude to a shortage of bronze shortly after the dissolution of the palaces that was, in part, alleviated by these well-made chert implements.
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    Hekate in early Greek religion
    (2022-07-07) Von Rudloff, Ilmo Robert; Scully, Sam E.
    Classical and later literature commonly presents Hekate as a goddess of malevolent magical practices and ghosts. However, earlier and contemporary evidence seems to contradict this picture by revealing beneficial functions and public acceptance of her worship. This study focuses upon all the evidence concerning the worship of Hekate in the Greek world until c400 B.C.E., to determine what her early primary functions were and how the later shift in emphasis in portrayal arose. The limited record indicates that in early times Hekate was a secondary figure who could serve one or more of several specific functions that can be categorised under the titles Propylaia, Pro polos, Phosphoros, Kourotrophos, and Chthonia. The first three of these were her most distinctive functions, and often involved attending upon more prominent deities such as Demeter and Persephone, Artemis, and K ybele. Two anomalous instances in which Hekate served a primary role, in the Theogony and in Roman Karia, are best explained as being isolated exceptions rather than indicating her early status. Hekate' s chthonic function is poorly attested in the Archaic evidence, but came to be strongly emphasised and associated with extreme and fantastic magical practices in literature by the end of the fifth century. Aspects of this role suggest that it may have reflected an exaggerated literary tradition rather than prevalent religious and magical practices. The early archaeological evidence is concentrated about the Aegean Sea and in western Anatolia. Together with the nature of many of her associations with other deities, this suggests that Hekate originated, at least in part, as a close but minor associate to the "Great Goddess" figure common to Anatolia. However, there is insufficient evidence to confine her homeland to Karia, the region favoured by modem scholars such as Nilsson, Kraus and Burkert.
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    Suppose it’s Sulpicia: a reading of the Corpus Sulpicianum
    (2021-02-01) Nicchitta, Novella; Littlewood, C. A. J.
    In this study, I have analyzed the poems from the Corpus Sulpicianum (3.8–3.18) as the creation of a single author, Sulpicia. My argument in favour of the uniformity of the cycle is based on the consistency of the authorial persona, poetic concerns, and author-specific blending of some elegiac tropes. Through a metaliterary analysis of the poems, an authorial identity emerges based on the trope of the docta puella. Unlike the doctae puellae of other Roman elegists who are constructed predominantly as recipients of male-authored poetry, Sulpicia through her doctrina enhances her persona as a creatrix of poetry. In the opening poems 3.8 and 3.13, for example, Sulpicia constructs her body as part of her literary program, while also developing her persona of elegiac lover. I also show how Sulpicia’s literary concerns arise in her preoccupation with literary fama, for which Sulpicia introduces an image that reflects a creative and maternal dimension, and which diverges from the predominant elegiac tradition. In most of the poems of the remaining cycle (3.9, 3.10, 3.11, and 3.12), not only does Sulpicia represent her persona consistently as a docta poeta, but she also includes amor mutuus and servitium aequum as part of her other poetic materia. From this perspective, I argue, Sulpicia again differs drastically from the rest of elegiac tradition, by considering the reciprocity of feelings to be the base of her valuable poetic discourse. The absence of mutuality, in fact, is also reflected in the exhaustion of both her body and her literary corpus in 3.16 and 3.17.
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    A study in Epicurean poetics: Virgil's eclogues
    (2020-01-28) Douglas, David; Littlewood, C. A. J.
    In this thesis I propose a reading of Virgil’s Eclogues which draws heavily on the author’s background in Epicurean philosophy. My aims are twofold: firstly to illuminate the literary complexities of Virgil’s bucolic poetry, a poetry which is highly allusive and whose meaning rests on knowledge of a wide range of both literary and philosophical sources; and secondly to substantiate a more general theory of Epicurean poetics by observing how such a theory can be seen to unfold in Virgil’s poetic practice. Beginning with the available biographical sources on Virgil’s life, I review the evidence for his adherence to Epicureanism and attempt to provide a rough chronology of his philosophical conversion and early literary output, including the Eclogues. In addition to this historical context I give an overview of Epicurean ethical teachings as they relate to poetry and literature, in order to arrive at a better understanding of the discursive and ideological milieu which would have informed the Eclogues’ composition. The remainder of the thesis traces the interaction between Virgil’s literary and philosophical inheritances across the textual fabric of the Eclogues. I isolate the shared concerns of Epicurean philosophy and bucolic poetics to regulate their engagement with the ancient poetic genres of epic and elegy, compositional modes which are associated with frustration and moral danger. Finally I show how in the Eclogues Virgil engages with a third poetic genre, (cosmological) didactic, and how this engagement reflects both an Epicurean interest in the ethical benefits of natural philosophy (physiologia) and a tendentious literary program which seeks to innovate on the generic conception of bucolic poetry that Virgil takes over from his bucolic predecessor, Theocritus.
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    The classical reception of the hybrid minotaur
    (2018-08-29) Lohrasbe, Devon; Burke, B.
    This thesis offers an interpretation of the myth of Theseus and the Minotaur that accounts for its popularity in fifth century Athens. The myth of the Minotaur had particular political resonance in Classical Athens because of the Minotaur’s hybrid character and eastern connotations. In the wake of the Persian wars, Theseus came to embody Athenian democratic and anti-Barbarian ideals. His canonical opponent, the Minotaur, represented the enemy of the Athenian citizen: an eastern hybrid such as the Persian/Carian/Lycian groups of Anatolia and the east. By aligning the Minotaur with his Near Eastern origins, the story of Theseus sailing to confront the Minotaur can be viewed as the story of Greeks, specifically Athenians, facing what was for them, very real threats from the east. By integrating iconographical and mythological evidence for the myths of Theseus and placing the Minotaur myth within the wider historical and political context of fifth century Athens, this thesis shows that the hybrid Minotaur was a stand in for the Persians.
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    Beyond the speaker: the audience in Seneca the Elder
    (2018-08-07) Barney, Neil; Rowe, Greg
    Seneca the Elder’s Controversiae and Suasoriae (c. 39 CE) provide a window onto declamation (fictional forensic or deliberative oratory) during the reign of the Roman emperor Augustus (27 BCE–CE 14). Although widely practiced as a form of elite education and entertainment, declamation was maligned by contemporaries as detrimental to rhetorical development. Modern scholars, such as Bloomer, Gunderson and Imber, have demonstrated how declamation acted as a medium for learning and asserting elite cultural identity. Previous scholarship, however, has focused on only the speaker in declamation. In this thesis I examine the secondary voices present during declamation: other speakers and the audience. In Chapter 1, I place Seneca the Elder and his work in context and examine how the format of his work allowed for the inclusion of voices beyond the speaker’s. In Chapter 2, I examine how declamation allowed its participants to assert a claim on Roman identity and lay out Seneca’s critical model, through which he validated or denied the identity-claims of the men in his work. In Chapter 3, I look at declamation as a multi-participant activity, examining speaker-to-speaker interactions in Seneca’s text and the way he constructs a community of shared speech, one which is tied to successful performance rather than a particular time or place, to support these interactions. In Chapter 4, I argue that Seneca uses the voice of the audience to assert and maintain the boundaries of the community and that he applies the label of scholastici (men who viewed declamation exclusively as entertainment) to audience members who fail to maintain the boundaries and, thus, rebuts the main complaint against declamation by relegating its unsuccessful participants to another genre of speech.
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    Designing women : studies in the representation of femininity in Roman society
    (2018-07-12) Shumka, Leslie Joan; Bradley, Keith R.
    This dissertation aims to explore the rôle of cultus (body care) and ornatus (adornment and dress) in the lives of women in the central period of Roman history. Literary, archaeological, and documentary evidence is assembled to illuminate social attitudes toward the impeccably presented woman, and to understand women's perceptions of cultus and ornatus. Chapter One begins with a discussion of Clement of Alexandria's Paedagogus, a work that provides considerable evidence for women's cosmetic and adornment practices. The Paedagogus serves two purposes: it permits a characterisation of traditional male attitudes toward feminine self-display, and it allows us to formulate questions which establish the importance of cosmetics and adornment to Roman women. This chapter also includes an overview of modern research on women's self-presentation. Chapter Two examines literary evidence for Roman beauty culture, from which we learn much about the range of body care products, clothes, and adornments available to women. Analysis suggests that women used beauty culture to convey their notions of femininity and, perhaps most importantly, their sense of individuality. The urban-élite bias of literary evidence necessarily informs us of the beauty culture of privileged women, yet there is also strong evidence to support the belief that women of the lower orders also defined femininity in their own terms by means of ornatus and cultus. Chapter Three focuses on a group of commemorative monuments from Italy and the Roman West. These memorials are sufficiently numerous that they allow a typology of toilette scenes to be created and discussed. Because of their artistic debt to Greek and Etruscan culture, the chapter begins with a survey of toilette scenes in earlier art sources. Discussion of the monuments then raises questions of whether women wanted to be represented in idealistic poses, or whether such depictions were the work of men. I argue that toilette iconography presupposes that women identified with beauty culture, and spent time while alive using cosmetics and adornment to differentiate themselves. Chapter Four examines a group of funerary inscriptions that accompany toilette iconography. These inscriptions have not previously been analysed as a unified body of evidence, nor as an important source for understanding the construction of femininity in Roman society. In current research, little attention has been paid to the status of honorands, or the extent to which ideals of femininity crossed social and economic boundaries. However, with the information gleaned from these inscriptions, further light is shed on how femininity was constructed, and how widely notions of femininity were disseminated and perpetuated within Roman society. Chapter Five introduces comparative evidence, from the modern era, to demonstrate that ornatus and cultus were part of women's strategy for achieving distinction and expressing self. The wealth of evidence from Roman literary, archaeological, and documentary sources affirming the importance of personal display in women's lives is invaluable, but does not in itself make explicit what women hoped to achieve by fashioning themselves and their own conceptions of womanhood. By comparing the ancient evidence with the modem, we see that beauty culture offered Roman women an opportunity to construct self and to create a sense of individuality. In Chapter Six the conclusion is reached that a synthesis of all primary sources is essential to a deeper understanding of the central rôle of self-presentation in women's lives. Each of these sources is a fundamental piece of a larger puzzle which when integrated, rather than studied independently, demonstrate that cultus and ornatus gave women the means and the independence to create a strong and effective presence, as differentiated individuals, in the communities to which they belonged.
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    Pliny the elder’s history: recording the past in the Naturalis historia
    (2018-05-23) Van Roessel, Arnoldus; Rowe, Greg
    Pliny’s Naturalis Historia is remarkable for its references to its sources throughout the text. There is little space between citations in the text, and Pliny provides much information in indirect statements. As a result, scholarship previously treated the work as a compilation. Pliny appeared to echo his sources, and so he provided a treasury of literary fragments which scholars attempted to extract. More recent scholarship has observed that Pliny’s use of the auctores is more involved than mere repetition. He criticizes, questions, compares, contrasts, and denies their statements. Similarly, recent scholarship, notably Doody, has demonstrated that identifying the Naturalis Historia as an encyclopedia is anachronistic, but both Doody and Naas make only passing remarks about the text being a historia. I argue in this thesis that the Naturalis Historia is a Roman historia and that Pliny’s references to his sources function within this historical project. Pliny’s moral exempla, attempts to perpetuate mos maiorum, and self-professed obligation to the past all reflect the Roman historiographic project of his work. According to this perspective, the Naturalis Historia re-envisions Roman history intellectually. Thereby, Pliny’s work tries to preserve and disseminate knowledge, encourage intellectual pursuits, and hopes for their persistence in posterity.
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    Textile tools and production at a Mycenaean secondary centre
    (2017-08-31) MacDonald, Max K.; Burke, B. (Brendan)
    This thesis is a study of textile production in the Late Bronze Age, using new evidence uncovered by excavations at Ancient Eleon in Boeotia, Greece. Textile production is a nearly forgotten art. To the Mycenaeans of the Greek Late Bronze Age (ca. 1700-1100 BCE) textiles were nearly a form of currency, and a symbol of power. This thesis begins by examining the Mycenaean administration of textile production, which was systematically controlled by the palatial centres of Greece and Crete. Linear B documents record resources and workers under palatial control, and the amounts of cloth that they were expected to produce. The Mycenaean palace at Thebes was the administrative centre that controlled the region of eastern Boeotia, including sites such as Eleon. No document directly links textile production at Eleon to Thebes, but other Theban tablets and the two sites’ close proximity suggest a similar relationship to other Mycenaean centres and their dependents. Usually, ancient textiles from Greece do not survive in the archaeological record. The only evidence that remains is the Linear B archives and the tools of production. Linear B tablets have not been found at Eleon, but many spindle whorls for yarn production, loom weights for weaving, and other tools indicating the production of textiles have been recovered from the site. This thesis discusses the significance of these objects and attempts to place Eleon in the greater context of the Mycenaean textile industry.
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    Foedera naturae in Lucretius' De rerum natura
    (2016-09-02) Tee, Lauren; Littlewood, C.A.J. (Cedric A. J.); Cameron, Margaret (Margaret Anne)
    Lucretius wrote his six-book philosophical epic poem De Rerum Natura a few decades before the fall of the Roman Republic and the start of the principate and the reign of Augustus in 27 BC, in a time of great social and political upheaval. This thesis examines Lucretius’ appropriation and correction of traditional Roman social and political rhetoric as part of his therapeutic philosophical programme, which aims to alleviate fear and anxiety through a rational understanding of nature. Specifically, this thesis examines Lucretius’ innovative use of foedus, a charged Roman word with many powerful connotations which is generally translated as “treaty”, “pact” or “covenant”. More than just an agreement, a foedus represented a divinely sanctioned ritualized contract between Rome and another polity, one which could not be broken without grave spiritual and political repercussions. They were an integral part of Roman life and culture and were strongly associated with imperialism, ambition, religion and sacrifice, and so Lucretius’ decision to adopt that word for the unthinking, unchanging, atheistic, necessary laws that limit and guide nature – despite his explicit condemnation of exactly those values foedus represents – is at first glance mystifying. As this thesis will show, however, foedus turns out to be an exceedingly apt choice, infusing almost every aspect of Lucretius’ Epicurean work with subtle complexity and meaning and contributing strongly to his polemical, therapeutic, ethical and didactic agendas. This thesis is divided into three chapters. The first chapter examines the social, political and philosophical contexts which influenced Lucretius to adopt Epicureanism. It then delves into some of the issues surrounding his innovative use of foedus. Chapter Two attempts to answer the research question of why foedus? by comparing and contrasting the essential characteristics of Roman foedera against those of Lucretius’ foedera naturae. This in turn provides a more detailed picture of Lucretius’ philosophical system both in terms of its physical and ethical doctrines, and suggests some possible motivations for Lucretius’ choice. Chapter Three looks at the deeper significance of Lucretius’ use of foedus and its role in his therapeutic programme of correction. Driving this chapter is Lucretius’ exploitation of the etymological connection between the noun foedus (‘treaty’, ‘covenant’) and the adjective foedus, ‘foul’. Chapter Three is divided into two sections, each focusing on Lucretius’ masterful manipulation of foedus and its etymological roots – as well as generic expectations and language in general –first for polemical purposes, then for therapeutic
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    Athenian and American Slaving Ideologies and Slave Stereotypes in Comparative Perspective
    (2015-09-08) Butler, Graham; Kron, John Geoffrey
    Many contemporary classical scholars, such as Benjamin Isaac and Denise McCoskey, frame the ancient Athenian attitudes toward their slaves as akin to or the same as White American racism. In this thesis, I argue that Athenian literary representations of slaves, in comparative perspective, are actually only superficially similar to those constructed in White American literature. I survey ancient Greek comedy and tragedy’s representations of slaves and demonstrate that the genres’ slave stereotypes recognise that slaves share with citizens a common humanity. I survey White American literature from the antebellum and Jim Crow eras, and I establish that its stereotyping of Black slaves and freedmen dehumanises them through the construction of racial difference. I argue that this crucial difference between Athenian and White American representations of slaves indicates that the Athenian city-state’s social system did not feature racism as it is articulated by critical race theorists Eduardo Bonilla-Silva and Joe Feagin.
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    Charis and Hybris in Pindaric Cosmology
    (2015-08-27) Beauvais, Glenn E.; Holmberg, Ingrid E.
    Although Pindar’s victory songs, or epinikia, were commissioned and performed to celebrate athletic victories, they present persistent reflections on the narrow limits of human prosperity, the inexorable cycle of success and failure, and the impossibility of appropriating any aspect of a godly nature. The present work provides a close reading of the Pythian series to illustrate how Pindar uses prayer, myth and gnomai to secure the moral and psychological reintegration of the athletic victor back into his close-knit community upon his homecoming (νόστος). As a re-integration rite, the challenging and dark elements of mortal limitation and failure are read as prophylactic statements against the destructive effects of hybris (ὕβρις). The Odes rest upon an archaic cosmology of reciprocal and harmonious exchange between humans themselves and between humans and the gods which is captured by the principle of charis or grace (χάρις). Ὕβρις is a breach of this reciprocity and the antithesis of χάρις since it is the unilateral claim of property, prestige, or privilege as well as the transgression against the divine dispensation which governs the cosmos (κόσμος). Modern psychological research shows how such concern for, and such precaution against, ὕβρις may be prudent given that victory fosters a drive for dominance.
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    Cato, Christ, and Piers: the Disticha Catonis and Christian literacy in Piers Plowman
    (2015-08-18) Baer, Patricia Ann; Kerby-Fulton, Kathryn
    Langland's use of moral distichs from the medieval text known as the Disticha Catonis has been noted but never critically examined as a whole. The figure of 'Cato' and the distichs attributed to him stand out in Piers Plowman. I will begin by placing both Piers and the Disticha in their medieval literary context. Questions of audience and literacy have always been central to Piers, and I will look at the way in which Langland's use of Latin quotations from the Disticha relates to these issues. I will also examine the role of ' Cato' and the distichs in Piers in order to dispell the prevailing critical view that 'Cato' represented a pagan authority. The medieval Christian commentaries which accompanied the Disticha illuminate Piers as well. Critics have often wondered why Langland choose to write in a mixture of languages. 'Cato' and the Disticha are part of the answer.
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    The image of the city in antiquity: tracing the origins of urban planning, Hippodamian Theory, and the orthogonal grid in Classical Greece
    (2015-06-22) Kirkpatrick, Aidan; Burke, Brendan
    The orthogonal, or rectangular, grid plan arose out of a need to organize the sprawling cities of Ancient Greece. To one particularly enigmatic figure in history, this problem was met with a blueprint and a philosophy. The ancient city-planner known as Hippodamus of Miletus (c. 480-408 BCE) was more of a philosopher than an architect, but his erudite connections and his idealistic theories provided him with numerous opportunities to experiment with the design that has come to bear his name. According to Aristotle, he was commissioned by the city of Athens to redesign its port-city, the Piraeus, and it is likely that he later followed a Pan-Hellenic expedition to an Italic colony known as Thurii (Thourioi). Strabo argues that the architect was also present at the restructuring of the city of Rhodes; however there is some debate on this issue. Hippodamus’ blueprint for a planned, districted city soon came to define the Greek polis in the Classical period, culminating with Olynthus in the Chalcidice, but his ideas were by no means unique to his own mind. There are precedents for the grid plan not only within the large, administrative empires of the Near East, but also within the Greek colonies of the Mediterranean, whose own histories span at least two centuries before Hippodamus’ lifetime. Since the 19th century, when Hippodamus received his title as the ‘Father of Urban Planning’, confusion and mistranslations have plagued the discipline, casting doubt on nearly every facet of Greek urbanism. Although he could not have invented the orthogonal grid plan, as Aristotle claims, it may prove far more effective to focus instead on Hippodamus’ philosophy and to give voice to where he himself excelled: the theoretical side to city planning.
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    Betrayed, Berserk, and Abandoned: War Trauma in Sophocles' Ajax and Philoctetes
    (2014-06-04) Binus, Joshua Robert; Bowman, Laurel
    Sophocles’ Ajax and Philoctetes can be read as allegories of warriors who experience war trauma. The ancient Greeks already knew of the effects of war trauma through prior literature, and the plays were produced during a period of great violence and upheaval. Ajax shows how a shame-inducing betrayal causes a warrior to go berserk, and consequently withdraw from his community and commit suicide. Philoctetes shows that a betrayal, combined with the loss of a comrade, can cause the warrior to become isolated and emotionally vulnerable. His only means of being reintegrated into society is through mutual understanding with members of that society, and closure with his dead comrade. These plays were produced for therapeutic benefit, as shown by the comparative evidence found in psychodrama, dramatherapy, and the Theater of War productions of the two plays.
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    Marcomannia in the making
    (2013-09-03) Bullard, Eva; Oleson, John Peter
    During the last stages of the Marcommani Wars in the late second century A.D., Roman literary sources recorded that the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius was planning to annex the Germanic territory of the Marcomannic and Quadic tribes. This work will propose that Marcus Aurelius was going to create a province called Marcomannia. The thesis will be supported by archaeological data originating from excavations in the Roman installation at Mušov, Moravia, Czech Republic. The investigation will examine the history of the non-Roman region beyond the northern Danubian frontier, the character of Roman occupation and creation of other Roman provinces on the Danube, and consult primary sources and modern research on the topic of Roman expansion and empire building during the principate.
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    Spiral Fluted Columns and the Mechanical Screw: The History of a Mathematical Idea in Ancient Architecture and Mechanical Technology
    (2013-09-03) Henderson, Georgina Jane; Oleson, John Peter
    This thesis examines the stone-carved architectural spiral fluted column from second-millennium B.C. Mesopotamia to the fourth-century A.D. Roman Empire, and establishes its relationship to technological devices such as water screws, screw presses, and other machines. Evidence from literary sources and archaeological records shows the increasing architectural use of the helical spiral during that time, particularly in structures such as theatres, nymphaea, colonnades and decorative gateways. The use of spiral designs on coins, sarcophagi, pottery and wall paintings is also discussed. The thesis presents: the mathematics of the spiral as applied in Mesopotamian architecture; spiral use in the Aegean Bronze and Iron Ages and the Greek and Roman worlds; and its use in technology and mechanical devices, specifically those of Archimedes and Hero. The conclusion summarises the evidence, demonstrating that the construction of the spiral fluted column evolved from that of the Archimedean water screw.
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    Tubuli and their Use in Roman Arabia, with a Focus on Humayma (Ancient Hauarra)
    (2013-08-28) Harvey, Craig Andrew; Oleson, John Peter
    This thesis examines the tubulus, a ceramic heating pipe developed by the Romans to create wall cavities through which hot air could circulate. An extension of the hypocaust system, tubuli systems were one of the most advanced heating systems used in antiquity, and were employed throughout the Roman Empire. This thesis focuses on the tubuli from Roman Arabia and particularly those from the site of Humayma, in modern Jordan, where a large corpus of this material has been found. This thesis represents the first study specifically on tubuli in Roman Arabia, and as such, it presents an initial examination of the material and lays the foundation for future studies on the topic. The first chapter of this thesis introduces tubuli, the region of Roman Arabia, and the history of baths in Roman Arabia. In the second chapter, tubuli and their use at Humayma are discussed in detail, and a chronological tubulus typology is presented. The Humayma tubuli are put into their regional context in the third chapter, which looks at tubuli found at sites throughout Roman Arabia. This final chapter also examines the regional trade and reuse of this material. Although this study only scratches the surface of this topic, it is able to reach several conclusions regarding tubuli and their use in Roman Arabia. These findings include revelations about the Nabataeans’ adoption and adaption of the tubulus before the Roman annexation of their territory and insights into the production and trade of this previously poorly understood material.
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    Pauline Christianity as a Stoic Interpretation of Judaism
    (2013-04-22) Coad, Diotima; Rowe, Greg; Cameron, Margaret
    This thesis investigates the social context of the Apostle Paul and the communities to which he preached with the aim of showing that early Pauline Christianity was shaped by a social milieu that included: first, a Greco-Roman and particularly Stoic philosophy, second, a universalizing Jewish movement and third, an overarching Roman political framework. Paul’s philosophy was built on a foundation of Judaism, interpreted with the tools of Stoic philosophy, and communicated to a largely Roman audience. Chapter One presents the figure of Paul as a Jew and Roman citizen with a Greek education, a product of three cultural worlds. Chapter Two argues that through allegory, Paul replaced Jewish nationalistic and ethnocentric aspects with symbolic ones, and communicated its ethical core with Stoic language and concepts to a primarily Roman audience. Chapter Three examines this audience and determines that they were largely Roman citizens who were both steeped in the prevalent philosophy of the time, Stoicism, as well as being associated with the Jewish community as sympathizers, God-fearers, or “Highest-God” worshippers, as a result of the popular Judaizing movement in the first century. Through the study of Paul, his letters, and his audience, this thesis argues that Pauline Christianity was, at its core, a Stoic interpretation of Judaism.