Systematic Review Reports

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    Characteristics and processes of the dedicated education unit practice education model for undergraduate nursing students: a scoping review
    (JBI Evidence Synthesis, 2021-11) Marcellus, Lenora; Jantzen, Darlaine; Humble, Robin; Sawchuck, Diane; Gordon, Carol
    Objective: The objective was to review literature related to the dedicated education unit practice education model for undergraduate nursing students, and identify common characteristics and processes for implementing and sustaining this model. Introduction: Although practice education is central to undergraduate nursing education, evidence-informed practices for learning in the clinical setting remain elusive. Changes to health care over the past decades related to the role and scope of practice for nurses, gradual shifts to community- and population-based care delivery, and expectations for interprofessional practice require forward-looking education models. The dedicated education unit model was developed in 1997 as a potential solution to globally recognized challenges in nursing education amidst discourses of nursing resource scarcity. Despite more than two decades of innovation and expansion, there is still limited understanding of the effectiveness of the dedicated education unit as a solution to those challenges, or for the anticipated benefits for students and patients, through enhanced evidence-informed health care. This analysis of the characteristics and processes of the model is timely for evaluating and sustaining implementation of the dedicated education unit across nursing practice and education settings. Inclusion criteria: English-only publications related to the dedicated education unit practice education model for undergraduate nursing students in baccalaureate and associate degree programs using qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods research, and quality improvement, program evaluation, and opinion publications were included. Methods: Using selected keywords including “dedicated education unit,” we searched CINAHL, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, Academic Premier Search, ERIC, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, JBI EBP Database, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Two independent reviewers screened titles and abstracts against inclusion criteria. We reviewed reference lists for gray literature and additional references. Data were extracted from the included articles and categorized for characteristics and processes. Eighty-two publications from January 1997 to May 2020 were included. The findings were presented descriptively with tables and figures to support the data. Results: Dedicated education unit models were based on five characteristics and four processes. Characteristics of the dedicated education unit model included effective academic-practice partnership, adaptability to diverse contexts, unit culture of educational excellence, responsive and supportive unit leadership, and clarity of roles and responsibilities. Processes included building nurse and faculty capacity, facilitating student learning, communicating regularly at systems and unit levels, and evaluating and sustaining the model. Conclusions: Evidence demonstrated that the dedicated education unit practice education model is well-established. However, there were existing gaps in this evidence, specifically evaluation and economic analyses. There was also limited attention to long-term sustainability of the model. The common characteristics and processes identified in this review may be used to support planning, implementation, and evaluation, including development and validation of evaluation tools. Although administrative infrastructure was noted as central to the dedicated education unit strategy, it was rarely acknowledged as part of management and thus also requires further study.
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    Equity-oriented frameworks to inform responses to opioid overdoses: a scoping review
    (JBI Evidence Synthesis, 2021-08) Wallace, Bruce; MacKinnon, Karen; Strosher, Heather; Macevicius, Celeste; Gordon, Carol; Raworth, Rebecca; Mesley, Lacey; Shahram, Sana; Marcellus, Lenora; Urbanoski, Karen; Pauly, Bernie
    Objective: The purpose of this scoping review was to systematically identify and describe literature that uses a health equity–oriented approach for preventing and reducing the harms of stigma or overdose for people who use illicit drugs or misuse prescription opioids. Inclusion criteria: To be included, papers had to both: i) use a health equity–oriented approach, defined as a response that addresses health inequities and aims to reduce drug-related harms of stigma or overdose; and ii) include at least one of the following concepts: cultural safety, trauma- and violence-informed care, or harm reduction. We also looked for papers that included an Indigenous-informed perspective in addition to any of the three concepts. Methods: An a priori protocol was published and the JBI methodology for conducting scoping reviews was employed. Published and unpublished literature from January 1, 2000, to July 31, 2019, was included. The databases searched included CINAHL (EBSCOhost), MEDLINE (Ovid), Academic Search Premier (EBSCOhost), PsycINFO (EBSCOhost), Sociological Abstracts and Social Services Abstracts (ProQuest), JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PROSPERO, Aboriginal Health Abstract Database, First Nations Periodical Index, and the National Indigenous Studies Portal. The search for unpublished studies included ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Google Scholar, and targeted web searches. Screening and data extraction were performed by two reviewers using templates developed by the authors. Data extraction included specific details about the population, concepts, context, and key findings or recommendations relevant to the review objectives. Results: A total of a total of 1065 articles were identified and screened, with a total of 148 articles included. The majority were published in the previous five years (73%) and were from North America (78%). Most articles only focused on one of the three health equity–oriented approaches, most often harm reduction (n = 79), with only 16 articles including all three. There were 14 articles identified that also included an Indigenous-informed perspective. Almost one-half of the papers were qualitative (n = 65; 44%) and 26 papers included a framework. Of these, seven papers described a framework that included all three approaches, but none included an Indigenous-informed perspective. Recommendations for health equity–oriented approaches are: i) inclusion of people with lived and living experience; ii) multifaceted approaches to reduce stigma and discrimination; iii) recognize and address inequities; iv) drug policy reform and decriminalization; v) ensure harm-reduction principles are applied within comprehensive responses; and vi) proportionate universalism. Gaps in knowledge and areas for future research are discussed. Conclusions: We have identified few conceptual frameworks that are both health equity–oriented and incorporate multiple concepts that could enrich responses to the opioid poisoning emergency. More research is required to evaluate the impact of these integrated frameworks for action.