Faculty Publications (Social Sciences)

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    Explaining post-pandemic lumber price volatility and its welfare effects
    (Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization, 2023) van Kooten, G Cornelis; Zanello, Rebecca; Schmitz, Andrew
    The COVID-19 pandemic led to an unprecedented increase in the U.S. price of softwood lumber by more than 300%. The price increase has been attributed to constraints on supply and increased demand for lumber caused by a pandemic-induced boom in domestic housing construction and, more so, home improvements. However, the volatility in lumber prices after the COVID-19 outbreak remains unexplained. In this paper, we employ a theoretical model to explain the cause of price volatility. We examine why demand and supply functions for lumber might be quite inelastic over the period from March 2020 to April 2022, despite very small shifts in demand. This implies that slight movements in interest rates or changes in the prices of substitutes, for example, can lead to large jumps in prices. Price volatility harms consumers while greatly benefitting lumber producers. Overall, as a result of the pandemic, U.S. producers gained some $5.3 billion, while U.S. consumers lost $7.3 billion per quarter.
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    Damage functions and the social cost of carbon: Addressing uncertainty in estimating the economic consequences of mitigating climate change
    (Envoronmental Management, 2022) Russell, Alyssa R.; van Kooten, G Cornelis; Izett, Jonathan G.; Eiswerth, Mark E.
    Mitigating the effects of human-induced climate change requires the reduction of greenhouse gases. Policymakers must balance the need for mitigation with the need to sustain and develop the economy. To make informed decisions regarding mitigation strategies, policymakers rely on estimates of the social cost of carbon (SCC), which represents the marginal damage from increased emissions; the SCC must be greater than the marginal abatement cost for mitigation to be economically desirable. To determine the SCC, damage functions translate projections of carbon and temperature into economic losses. We examine the impact that four damage functions commonly employed in the literature have on the SCC. Rather than using an economic growth model, we convert the CO2 pathways from the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) into temperature projections using a three-layer, energy balance model and subsequently estimate damages under each RCP using the damage functions. We estimate marginal damages for 2020–2100, finding significant variability in SCC estimates between damage functions. Despite the uncertainty in choosing a specific damage function, comparing the SCC estimates to estimates of marginal abatement costs from the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) indicates that reducing emissions beyond RCP6.0 is economically beneficial under all scenarios. Reducing emissions beyond RCP4.5 is also likely to be economically desirable under certain damage functions and SSP scenarios. However, future work must resolve the uncertainty surrounding the form of damage function and the SSP estimates of marginal abatement costs to better estimate the economic impacts of climate change and the benefits of mitigating it.
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    COVID-19 impacts on U.S. lumber markets
    (Forest Policy and Economics, 2022) van Kooten, G Cornelis; Schmitz, Andrew
    The Covid-19 pandemic led to an unprecedented increase in the U.S. price of softwood lumber by more than 300%. The reasons for this increase have been attributed to constraints on supply caused by pandemic-induced labor shortages, and increased demand for lumber caused by a Covid-19 related boom in domestic real estate and home improvements. In this paper, we examine the effect that these factors might have had on the increase in prices and the related changes in the welfare of U.S. lumber manufacturers and downstream users of lumber. We examine three cases where the demand function shifts outwards: (1) the lumber supply function remains unchanged; (2) the U.S. lumber supply function and that of its trading partners shifts inwards; and (3) U.S. lumber producers restrict output at its pre-Covid level. Overall, we find that U.S. producers gained between $0.7 and $8.0 billion per quarter as a result of the pandemic, while downstream processors gained $639 million. We argue, however, that the ultimate consumer of the downstream products that require lumber as an input (housing construction, furniture) might well be worse off as surplus lost as a result of reduced expenditures on commodities and services restricted by Covid-19 are not quite recovered when spending switches to lumber-related commodities.
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    A conservation orientation in commons dilemmas
    (Journal of Environmental Psychology, 2024) Lavallee, Loraine F.; Gifford, Robert; Sussman, Reuven; Kronisch, Devan; Iglesias, Fabio; Matheson, Heath
    Commons dilemmas have an unforgiving logic: depleting renewable resources, such as a community's freshwater reservoir, will harm those who depend upon it. The conservation-orientation hypothesis proposes that most individuals understand this logic and therefore are inclined to conserve replenishable resources. Two studies tested this hypothesis by placing participants in either sustainable-fishing or over-fishing microworlds. Consistent with the hypothesis, when (computer-programmed) fishers in Study 1 harvested sustainably, participants also harvested sustainably. When faced with an over-fishing context, most participants who valued power and wealth sustained the resource over time. Participants less motivated by power and wealth went further by sacrificing more of their own harvest to sustain the fish population. A true conservation-orientation goes beyond protecting the resource for one's personal interests and this proposition was investigated in Study 2 with Prosocial or Proself individuals. Majorities of both groups sustained the resource at high levels for future generations of fishers even when their own financial outcomes would have doubled by depleting the resource. The conservation-orientation hypothesis was largely supported: members of small commons conserved the resource for themselves over time and for future generations and, when faced with a depleting resource, attempted to restore it.
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    From facts to feelings: Navigating the complexities of COVID-19 restrictions, perceptions, and mental well-being
    (Psychiatry Research, 2024) Gregory, Madeline; Reeves, Jennifer T. H.; Danyluk, Alexa; Legg, Nicole K.; Phiri, Peter; Rathod, Shanaya; Turner, Brianna; Paterson, Theone S. E.
    Objectives of the present study were to 1) examine accuracy of COVID-19 public health restriction knowledge and the impact of information source, 2) assess the effect of perceived level of restriction on perceived infection risk of COVID-19 infection and level of compliance with restrictions, and 3) investigate the relationship between mental health outcomes and perceived as well as actual level of restriction. Canadians (n = 5,051) completed an online survey between December 2020 and March 2021 assessing public health restriction knowledge, accuracy of this knowledge, information sources about COVID-19, perceived infection risk, compliance with restrictions, loneliness, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Approximately half of our sample had accurate knowledge of the restrictions in their region/province, which significantly differed by province. Individuals who perceived restriction levels to be higher than they were, reported significantly greater perceived infection risk, more compliance with restrictions, worse mental health, and greater loneliness. Individuals living under moderate restrictions had better mental health and experienced less loneliness compared to minor, significant and extreme restriction levels. Findings suggest that while restrictions are beneficial for compliance, stronger and clearer restrictions should be coupled with mental health supports to remediate the negative effects of restrictions and uncertainty on mental health and loneliness.
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    Mapping vegetation height and identifying the northern forest limit across Canada using ICESat-2, Landsat time series and topographic data
    (Remote Sensing of Environment, 2024) Travers-Smith, H.; Coops, N. C.; Mulverhill, C.; Wulder, M. A.; Ignace, D.; Lantz, T. C.
    The northern forest-tundra ecotone is one of the fastest warming regions of the globe. Models of vegetation change generally predict a northward advance of boreal forests and corresponding retreat of the tundra. Previous satellite remote sensing analyses in this region have focused on mapping vegetation greenness and tree cover derived from optical multi-spectral sensors. Changes in vegetation structure relating to height and biomass are less frequently investigated due to limited availability of lidar data over space and time in comparison with optical platforms. As such, there is an opportunity to combine lidar and optical remote sensing products for continuous mapping of vegetation structure at high-latitudes, with an emphasis on the forest-tundra transition. In this study, we used lidar data from the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat-2) to classify canopy presence/absence, and predict canopy height across 120 million hectares of the Canadian forest-tundra ecotone at 30 m spatial resolution. Spatially continuous predictors derived from the Landsat satellite archive (2012−2021) and the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) Digital Elevation Model were used to extrapolate 98th percentile canopy height from the ICESat-2 Land and Vegetation Height (ATL08) product using Random Forests models developed in R (version 4.2.2). Model accuracy was assessed using data from the Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor (LVIS), a large-footprint airborne lidar system. The overall accuracy of the canopy presence classification was 89%, and canopy presence was detected with 88% accuracy. Models of vegetation height showed an overall R2 of 0.54 and RMSE of 2.09 m. Finally, we used these methods to map the limit of continuous 3 m forest across Canada and compared our model outputs with forest cover from the MODIS and Landsat Vegetation Continuous Fields datasets. This work demonstrates the challenges and potential for mapping horizontal and vertical vegetation structure within sparse, high latitude forests using both lidar and optical remote sensing data.
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    Does a carbon tax reduce CO2 emissions? Evidence from British Columbia
    (Environmental and Resource Economics, 2022) Pretis, Felix
    Using difference-in-differences, synthetic control, and introducing a new break-detection approach, I show that the introduction of North America’s first major carbon tax has reduced transportation emissions but not ‘yet’ led to large statistically significant reductions in aggregate CO2 emissions. Proposing a new method to assess policy based on breaks in difference-in-differences using machine learning, I demonstrate that neither carbon pricing nor trading schemes in other provinces are detected as large and statistically significant interventions. Instead, closures and efficiency-improvements in emission-intense industries in untaxed provinces have reduced emissions. Overall, the results show that existing carbon taxes (and prices) are likely too low to be effective in the time frame since their introduction.
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    Intrinsic functional connectivity strength of SuperAgers in the default mode and salience networks: Insights from ADNI
    (Aging Brain, 2024) Keenan, Haley E.; Czippel, Alexis; Heydari, Sepideh; Gawryluk, Jodie R.; Mazerolle, Erin L.
    There exists a group of older individuals who appear to be resistant to age-related memory decline. These “SuperAgers” have been shown to demonstrate preservation of cortical thickness and functional connectivity strength across the cortex which positively correlates with memory performance. Over the last decade, roughly 30 articles have been published regarding SuperAgers; however, to our knowledge, no replications of these studies have been published. The current study sought to conceptually replicate Zhang and colleagues’ (2020) findings that SuperAgers demonstrate stronger intrinsic functional connectivity within the default mode (DMN) and salience networks (SN), and that connectivity strength within these networks correlates with memory performance. We identified 20 SuperAgers and 20 matched Normal Agers in the control cohort of the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. We compared the functional connectivity strength of the DMN and SN between these groups, and used the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) to evaluate correlations between functional connectivity and memory performance. Our results did not replicate Zhang and colleagues’ (2020) results, as we found negligible differences between SuperAgers and Normal Agers in the DMN and SN, and no significant correlations between functional connectivity and memory performance after accounting for multiple comparisons. More replications are needed to confirm existing work. In addition, more research with larger SuperAger samples and more consistent definitions of SuperAging is needed, so that we can better understand this remarkable group of older adults.
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    Culturing the body in the context of the neolithisation of the southern Levant
    (Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, 2024) Nowell, April; Macdonald, Danielle
    The body is a site of lived experience as people engage their social, cultural, and physical worlds through their bodies. As a product of both nature and culture, it can be modified to fulfil, challenge, or rebel against ideals and expectations. While not all the ways in which humans modify their bodies leave traces in the archaeological record, the use of personal ornaments is well documented. In this paper, we focus on the practice of body modification through personal adornment in the context of the neolithisation of the southern Levant. We argue that shifting subsistence strategies, settlement patterns, and social relationships (including relationships with ancestors) necessitated new ways of being in the world that were manifested in and through material culture including personal ornaments. In the Neolithic, living bodies did not need to be present for an individual to have a social “life” and personal ornaments as heirlooms likely played a fundamental and complementary role in “presencing” a person who would otherwise be absent.
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    The simple macroeconometrics of the quantity theory and the welfare cost of inflation
    (Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, 2024) Stewart, Kenneth G.
    The quantity theory of money hypothesizes that the price level is determined through the equilibration of money supply and demand. Predicated on this causal structure, a single-equation error correction model decomposes from a larger vector autoregressive system so as to make available bounds tests for a levels relationship that are robust to the univariate integration properties of the variables. This model is estimated using three monetary aggregates and two money demand specifications, for U.S. and U.K. annual data over the past century and quarterly post-WWII data. The classic homogeneity propositions of the quantity theory are testable, and are found to be most compatible with U.S. annual M2 using log-log money demand with structural change permitted. Nevertheless, the resulting welfare costs are similar to those yielded by the U.K. annual data, being less than one percent of GDP at interest rates experienced during the past century.
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    Improving queer history knowledge and perspective-taking toward LGBTQ+ people: There's an app for that
    (Teaching and Teacher Education, 2024) Harley, Jason M.; Lou, Nigel Mantou; Ahn, Byunghoon “Tony”; Liu, Yang S.
    Minority history education can support perspective-taking which is linked to decreasing stereotypes and prejudice. A pre-test post-test randomized control trial study with 114 pre-service teachers was conducted to examine the role of queer history instruction to improve learners’ self-reported perspective-taking toward LGBTQ + minorities and knowledge of queer history. Participants in the Edmonton Queer History App (vs. control) condition learned significantly more and reported higher levels of perspective-taking towards both sexual orientation (SO) and gender identity (GI) minority members. Mediation analysis showed that learning outcome explained the effect of the app condition on the increase of perspective-taking towards SO (but not GI).
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    Degradation of ice-wedge polygons leads to increased fluxes of water and DOC
    (Science of the Total Environment, 2024) Speetjens, Niek Jesse; Berghuijs, Wouter R.; Wagner, Julia; Vonk, Jorien E.
    Ice-wedge polygon landscapes make up a substantial part of high-latitude permafrost landscapes. The hydrological conditions shape how these landscapes store and release organic carbon. However, their coupled water‑carbon dynamics are poorly understood as field measurements are sparse in smaller catchments and coupled hydrology-dissolved organic carbon (DOC) models are not tailored for these landscapes. Here we present a model that simulates the hydrology and associated DOC export of high-centered and low-centered ice-wedge polygons and apply the model to a small catchment with abundant polygon coverage along the Yukon Coast, Canada. The modeled seasonal pattern of water and carbon fluxes aligns with sparse field data. These modeled seasonal patterns indicate that early-season runoff is mostly surficial and generated by low-centered polygons and snow trapped in troughs of high-centered polygons. High-centered polygons show potential for deeper subsurface flow under future climate conditions. This suggests that high-centered polygons will be responsible for an increasing proportion of annual DOC export compared to low-centered polygons. Warming likely shifts low-centered polygons to high-centered polygons, and our model shows that this shift will cause a deepening of the active layer and a lengthening of the thawing season. This, in turn, intensifies seasonal runoff and DOC flux, mainly through its duration. Our model provides a physical hypothesis that can be used to further quantify and refine our understanding of hydrology and DOC export of arctic ice-wedge polygon terrain.
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    Rethinking blue economy governance – A blue economy equity model as an approach to operationalise equity
    (Environmental Science and Policy, 2024) Croft, Freya; Breakey, Hugh; Voyer, Michelle; Cisneros-Montemayor, Andrés; Issifu, Ibrahim; Solitei, Makrita; Moyle, Catherine; Campbell, Brooke; Barclay, Kate; Benzaken, Dominique; Bodwitch, Hekia; Fusco, Leah; Garcia Lozano, Alejandro; Ota, Yoshitaka; Pauwelussen, Annet; Schutter, Marleen; Singh, Gerald; Pouponneau, Angelique
    The blue economy was originally conceptualised as having a strong focus on social equity; however, in practice, these equity considerations have been overshadowed by neo-liberal capitalist agendas, which have become dominant in blue economy discourse. A continued expansion of ocean industry developments and activities has resulted in an inequitable share of the burdens and benefits of utilising ocean spaces and has exacerbated wealth disparities and power asymmetries. Therefore, finding mechanisms to reinstate equity as fundamental to blue economy governance and practice is increasingly important. However, there remain few practical examples that outline how to embed equity within blue economy governance and current frameworks for understanding equity are complex, often divergent and less focused on implementation. This paper outlines a new model for conceptualising equity that is clear and easily understood, captures equity’s key components and dimensions, and covers key ethical concerns that arise in blue economy development. Furthermore, this model can be practically applied and embedded into governance structures. To demonstrate the model’s application, the paper outlines one participatory approach to implementing the model in blue economy governance.
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    Relational place-based solutions for environmental policy misalignments
    (Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 2024) Kobluk, Hannah; Salomon, Anne K.; Ford, Adam T.; Kadykalo, Andrew M.; Hessami, Mateen A.; Labranche, Pierre-Alexandre; Richter, Carmen; Palen, Wendy J.; Happynook, ḥapinyuuk Tommy; Humphries, Murray M.; Bennett, Elena M.
    Current reductionist approaches to environmental governance cannot resolve social-ecological crises. Siloed institutions fail to address linked social and ecological processes, thereby neglecting issues of equity, justice, and cumulative effects. Global insights can be gained from Indigenous-led initiatives that support the resilience of relationships within and among places.
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    Interpreting interfluvial landscape transformations in the pre-Columbian Amazon
    (The Holocene, 2015) Stahl, Peter
    Despite evidence for the protracted presence of humans in the Amazon Basin, its vast interfluvial habitats are frequently depicted as having survived until recently as “wild” landscapes with neither human settlement nor substantial human land use. Related research interests of paleoecology and archaeology share parallel histories in the development of explanatory paradigms for understanding processes contributing to neotropical ecology, as both emerged from earlier periods dominated by models based on stability and equilibrium to a contemporary advocacy of dynamic stability and change. Recent paradigms accommodate humans as keystone species and implicate their role in past and present landscape management. This is particularly important in the Neotropics where it is argued that an extensive and ancient indigenous agroforestry employed intermediate disturbance in the management of interfluvial landscapes. This is contrasted with a critical discussion of recent paleoecological research in central and western Amazonia, which argues that interfluvial landscapes were devoid of pre-Columbian populations and survived as relatively pristine relic landscapes throughout most of the Anthropocene.
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    Archaeological and zoological collections do not provide evidence for taruka (Cervidae: Hippocamelus antisensis) in Ecuador
    (Journal of Mammalogy, 2015) Pinto, C. Miguel; Soto-Centeno, J. Angel; Núñez Quiroz, Ángela M.; Ferreyra, Nicolás; Delgado-Espinoza, Florencio; Stahl, Peter; Tirira, Diego G.
    Knowing whether a species has been extirpated, or if it ever inhabited a specific geographic area, has direct importance for planning conservation activities. The taruka ( Hippocamelus antisensis ) is one of the largest Neotropical mammals; it is distributed in the central Andes, and there are published records of this species in Ecuador. Recently, missing museum specimens have cast doubts on the validity of these Ecuadorian records. Here, we examine whether the taruka ever inhabited Ecuador by analyzing multiple sources of information. Our approach consists of 3 components: 1) we surveyed archaeological collections and literature for any biological remains and cultural artifacts that may represent tarukas, 2) we searched mammal collections for specimens reported in publications, and 3) we generated ecological niche models (ENMs) of current and past climates to determine whether Ecuador offers suitable habitats for the taruka. Our results suggest that the taruka never inhabited Ecuador. We did not find any reliable supporting evidence in the form of specimens nor convincing literature reports. Furthermore, ENMs revealed that Ecuador has not supported suitable climates for the taruka. We suggest that published records of taruka in Ecuador may have been due to improper identifications of specimens. The methods used here may also prove useful in determining the presence of species that are either thought to be extinct, or suspected to be recently introduced into a new geographic area.
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    Industrial development alters wolf spatial distribution mediated by prey availability
    (Ecology and Evolution, 2023) Boczulak, Hannah; Boucher, Nicole; Ladle, Andrew; Boyce, Mark S.; Fisher, Jason Thomas
    Increasing resource extraction and human activity are reshaping species' spatial distributions in human-altered landscape and consequently shaping the dynamics of interspecific interactions, such as between predators and prey. To evaluate the effects of industrial features and human activity on the occurrence of wolves (Canis lupus), we used wildlife detection data collected in 2014 from an array of 122 remote wildlife camera traps in Alberta's Rocky Mountains and foothills near Hinton, Canada. Using generalized linear models, we compared the occurrence frequency of wolves at camera sites to natural land cover, industrial disturbance (forestry and oil/gas exploration), human activity (motorized and non-motorized), and prey availability (moose, Alces alces; elk, Cervus elaphus; mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus; and white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus). Industrial block features (well sites and cutblocks) and prey (elk or mule deer) availability interacted to influence wolf occurrence, but models including motorized and non-motorized human activity were not strongly supported. Wolves occurred infrequently at sites with high densities of well sites and cutblocks, except when elk or mule deer were frequently detected. Our results suggest that wolves risk using industrial block features when prey occur frequently to increase predation opportunities, but otherwise avoid them due to risk of human encounters. Effective management of wolves in anthropogenically altered landscapes thus requires the simultaneous consideration of industrial block features and populations of elk and mule deer.
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    Advancing gender inclusivity for Two-Spirit, trans, nonbinary and other gender-diverse blood and plasma donors
    (2024) Haw, Jennie; Butler-Foster, Terrie; Murray, Benjamin; Lapierre, Don; Bosse, Jesse; Edwards, Jack; Gümüşpala, Şansal; Jenkins, Catherine; Devor, Aaron
    Background and Objectives: Two-Spirit, trans, nonbinary and other gender-diverse (2STGD) donors face challenges in donation. While many blood operators aim to address these challenges, to date, no empirical study with these donors has been conducted to guide their efforts. This paper reports 2STGD donors' views on a two-step approach asking donors their gender and sex assigned at birth (SAAB), and expanding gender options in donor registration. Materials and Methods: A qualitative community-based study was conducted with 2STGD donors (n = 85) in Canada. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted from July to October 2022, audio-recorded and transcribed. Data were analysed using a thematic analytic framework. Results: Participants were divided on their views of a two-step approach asking gender and SAAB. Themes underlying views in favour of this approach included the following: demonstrating validation and visibility, and treating 2STGD donors and cisgender donors alike. Themes underlying views not in favour or uncertain included potential for harm, compromising physical safety, and invalidation. All participants were in favour of expanding gender options if blood operators must know donors' gender. Conclusion: Results indicate that a two-step approach for all donors is not recommended unless the blood operator must know both a donor's gender and SAAB to ensure donor and/or recipient safety. Gender options should be expanded beyond binary options. Ongoing research and evidence synthesis are needed to determine how best to apply donor safety measures to nonbinary donors.
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    Five social science intervention areas for ocean sustainability initiatives
    (Npj Ocean Sustainability, 2023) Partelow, Stefan; Schlüter, Achim; Ban, Natalie; Batterbury, Simon; Bavinck, Maarten; Bennett, Nathan J.; Bleischwitz, Raimund; Blythe, Jessica; Bogusz, Tanja; Breckwoldt, Annette; Cinner, Joshua E.; Glaser, Marion; Govan, Hugh; Gruby, Rebecca; Hatje, Vanessa; Hornidge, Anna-Katharina; Hovelsrud, Grete K.; Kittinger, John N.; Riechers, Maraja; Riekhof, Marie-Catherine; Schwerdtner Manez, Kathleen; Shellock, Rebecca J.; Siriwardane-de Zoysa, Rapti; Steins, Nathalie A.; Van Assche, Kristof; Villasante, Sebastian
    Ocean sustainability initiatives – in research, policy, management and development – will be more effective in delivering comprehensive benefits when they proactively engage with, invest in and use social knowledge. We synthesize five intervention areas for social engagement and collaboration with marine social scientists, and in doing so we appeal to all ocean science disciplines and non-academics working in ocean initiatives in industry, government, funding agencies and civil society. The five social intervention areas are: (1) Using ethics to guide decision-making, (2) Improving governance, (3) Aligning human behavior with goals and values, (4) Addressing impacts on people, and (5) Building transdisciplinary partnerships and co-producing sustainability transformation pathways. These focal areas can guide the four phases of most ocean sustainability initiatives (Intention, Design, Implementation, Evaluation) to improve social benefits and avoid harm. Early integration of social knowledge from the five areas during intention setting and design phases offers the deepest potential for delivering benefits. Later stage collaborations can leverage opportunities in existing projects to reflect and learn while improving impact assessments, transparency and reporting for future activities.
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    Striking a balance between ecological, economic, governance, and social dimensions in marine protected area network evaluations
    (Conservation Science and Practice, 2023) Meehan, Mairi C.; Singh, Gerald; Ban, Natalie; Devillers, Rodolphe; Claudet, Joachim
    Marine protected area networks (MPANs) are promised as tools for protecting biodiversity and contributing to sustainable development. The variety of expected social-ecological outcomes associated with MPANs underscores a need to consider ecological, economic, governance, and social dimensions in MPAN design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. However, little is known about how these four dimensions are considered or shaped by objectives. We conducted an online survey with MPAN managers, technical staff, and academics from across the globe (77 survey responses that described 48 MPANs located in 59 countries). Our findings confirmed that most MPANs have various co-occurring, potentially conflicting objectives. MPANs with biodiversity and societal objectives considered attributes (e.g., human well-being and economic distribution, institutional partnerships, and network-specific ecological attributes) among all dimensions, with greater frequency than MPANs with only biodiversity objectives. Nonetheless, ecological attributes were always perceived as important irrespective of the MPAN objective. Reaching synergies between the multiple dimensions of MPANs can be challenging if dimensions get overlooked in MPAN evaluations. Identifying the important attributes considered in MPANs offers insight into the practice of MPAN design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation and can help improve MPAN success.
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