Slush-Ice Berm Formation on the West Coast of Alaska

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dc.contributor.author Eerkes-Medrano, Laura
dc.contributor.author Atkinson, David E.
dc.contributor.author Eicken, Hajo
dc.contributor.author Nayokpuk, Bill
dc.contributor.author Sookiayak, Harvey
dc.contributor.author Engott, Eddie
dc.contributor.author Weyapuk, Winton Jr
dc.date.accessioned 2018-08-20T19:24:03Z
dc.date.available 2018-08-20T19:24:03Z
dc.date.copyright 2017 en_US
dc.date.issued 2017
dc.identifier.citation Eerkes-Medrano, L.; Atkinson, D.E.; Eicken, H.; Nayokpuk, B.; Sookiayak, H.; Ungott, E.; & Weyapuk Jr., W. (2017). Slush-ice berm formation on the west coast of Alaska. Arctic, 70(2), 190-202. https://doi.org/10.14430/arctic4644 en_US
dc.identifier.uri https://doi.org/10.14430/arctic4644
dc.identifier.uri https://dspace.library.uvic.ca//handle/1828/9941
dc.description.abstract Some coastal communities in western Alaska have observed the occurrence of "slush-ice berms." These features typically form during freeze-up, when ice crystal-laden water accumulates in piles on the shore. Slush-ice berms can protect towns from storm surge, and they can limit access to the water. Local observations from the communities of Gambell, Shaktoolik, Shishmaref, and Wales were synthesized to develop a taxonomy of slush-ice berm types and a conceptual process model that describes how they form and decay. Results indicated two types of slush-ice berm formation processes: in situ (forming in place) and advective (pushed in by storm winds). Several formation mechanisms were noted for the crystals that compose in situ berms. Cold air temperatures cool the surface of the water, and winds that translate surface cooling through a greater depth aid crystal formation. Snow landing in the water cools via melting of the snow and by contributing crystals directly to the water. A negative surge can expose the wet beach to cold air, allowing crystals to form on the beach, which are then picked up by waves. Slush crystals for advective berm events form offshore. Winds move the slush towards shore, where it accumulates, and wind-induced waves move it up onto the beach. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship The authors are grateful to the residents of Gambell, Shaktoolik, and Shishmaref who welcomed us in their villages and homes, and to the Tribal Councils for their support to do this work. David Atkinson of the Department of Geography, University of Victoria, in collaboration with Hajo Eicken and Craig Gerlach, University of Alaska Fairbanks, received funding from the Western Alaska Landscape Conservation Cooperative and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to conduct a study based on work with community observers, develop a conceptual model of slush-ice berm formation, and identify the impacts of storms and adverse weather on community activities and infrastructure. Funding support from the National Science Foundation for the SIZONet project is gratefully acknowledged. We appreciate the important contributions by community-based ice observers and the Exchange of Local Knowledge of the Arctic in the completion of this work. Comments by Torre Jorgenson and two anonymous reviewers helped improve the manuscript. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Arctic en_US
dc.subject slush-ice berm en_US
dc.subject community observations en_US
dc.subject local knowledge en_US
dc.subject synoptic en_US
dc.subject weather en_US
dc.subject coastal en_US
dc.subject Alaska en_US
dc.subject sea ice en_US
dc.subject Arctic en_US
dc.title Slush-Ice Berm Formation on the West Coast of Alaska en_US
dc.type Article en_US
dc.description.scholarlevel Faculty en_US
dc.description.reviewstatus Reviewed en_US

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