Schema Provoke False Knowing Even When Schema-Consistent Targets Had Not Been Presented




Yamada, Ryoma
Itsukushima, Yukio
Azad, Tanjeem
Lindsay, D. Stephen

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International Journal of Psychological Studies


Human memory is not always an accurate record of experienced events. Information that has never been experienced but is consistent with a relevant schema is sometimes mistaken as memory, giving rise to false memories. In this study, we focused on whether schema can provoke false memory for actions and for objects even when schema-consistent targets had not been presented. We presented schema-inconsistent actions and schema-inconsistent objects in a slide sequence depicting a kitchen. Later, we administered an old/new recognition test with remember/know judgments and Perception/Thought/Emotion/Context ratings for schema-inconsistent targets, schema-consistent distracters, and schema-inconsistent distracters. Both for the actions and the objects, participants more often falsely recognized schema-consistent distracters than schema-inconsistent distracters. That is, memory can be reconstructed along the scene schema, provoking false memory. However, these false memories were not typically accompanied by “remember” judgments but rather by “know” judgments. The similarity between schema-consistent targets and schema-consistent distracters is an essential factor for false recollection.



everyday scene, false memory, Perception/Thought/Emotion/Context questionnaire, remember/know judgment, scema


Yamada, R.; Itsukushima, Y.; Azad, T.; & Lindsay, D. S. (2014). Schema provoke false knowing even when schema-consistent targets had not been presented. International Journal of Psychological Studies, 6(3), 62-70. DOI: 10.5539/ijps.v6n3p62