Growth and Physiological Responses of Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst) Supplemented with Monochromatic Red, Blue and Far-Red Light




OuYang, Fangqun
Ou, Yang
Ma, Jianwei
An, Sanping
Zhao, Jun
Wang, Junhui
Kong, Lisheng
Zhang, Hanguo
Tigabu, Mulualem

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Monochromatic red light (R) supplementation is more efficient than blue light (B) in promoting Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst) growth. Transcriptome analysis has revealed that R and B may regulate stem growth by regulating phytohormones and secondary metabolites; however, the effects of light qualities on physiological responses and related gene expression in Norway spruce require further study. In the present study, three-year-old Norway spruce seedlings received sunlight during the daytime were exposed to monochromatic B (460 mm), monochromatic R (660 nm), monochromatic far-red light (FR, 730 nm), and a combination of three monochromatic lights (control, R:FR:B = 7:1:1) using light-emitting diode (LED) lamps for 12 h after sunset for 90 day. Growth traits, physiological responses, and related gene expression were determined. The results showed that light quality significantly affected Norway spruce growth. The stem height, root collar diameter, and current-year shoot length of seedlings treated with R were 2%, 10% and 12% higher, respectively, than those of the control, whereas seedlings treated with B and FR showed significantly lower values of these parameters compared with that of the control. The net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of seedlings under R treatment was 10% higher than that of the control, whereas the Pn values of seedlings treated with FR and B were 22% and 33%, respectively, lower than that of the control. The ratio of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase to ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (PEPC/Rubisco) of seedlings after the R treatment (0.581) was the highest and 3.98 times higher than that of the seedlings treated with B. Light quality significantly affected the gibberellic acid (GAs) levels, which was 13% higher in seedlings treated with R (6.4 g/100 ng) than that of the control, whereas, the GAs level of seedlings treated with B and FR was 17% and 19% lower, respectively, than that of the control. In addition, seedlings treated with R achieved the lowest ratio of leaf chlorophyll content to fresh weight (8.7). Compared to the R and control treatments, seedlings received FR treatment had consistently lower values of the quantum yield of electron transport beyond QA− (primary quinone, ϕEo) and efficiency, with which a trapped exciton moves an electron into the electron transport chain beyond QA− (ψo), while higher values of the relatively variable fluorescence at the J step and normalized relatively variable fluorescence at the K step (Wk). The values of ϕEo, ψO, VJ and Wk in seedlings treated with B were similar to those in the control group. The expression of genes associated with light signal transduction, such as PHYTOCHROME C (PHYC), ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5), CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1-2 (COP1-2), and PHYTOCHROMEINTERACTING FACTOR 3 (PIF3), was significantly higher in seedlings under B treatment than those under other light treatments. Nevertheless, significant differences were not observed in the expression of COP1-2, HY5, and PIF3 between the R treatment and the control. The expression value of COP1-2 was significantly lower in R than FR light treatments. In conclusion, compared with the control, R promotes, whereas B and FR inhibit Norway spruce growth, which was accompanied by physiological changes and genes expression regulation that may be relate to a changing phytochrome photostationary state (PSS) with the supplemental R in seedlings.



light quality, light-emitting diode, photosynthetic electron transport, photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll a fluorescence


Ouyang, F., Ou, Y., Zhu, T., Ma, J., An, S., Kong, L., … Tigabu, M. (2021). Growth and Physiological Repsonses of Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst) Supplemented with Monochromatic Red, Blue and Far-Red Light. Forests, 12(2), 1- 16.