Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics—The Nonequilibrium Perspective

Date

2020

Authors

Struchtrup, Henning

Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title

Publisher

Entropy

Abstract

An alternative to the Carnot-Clausius approach for introducing entropy and the second law of thermodynamics is outlined that establishes entropy as a nonequilibrium property from the onset. Five simple observations lead to entropy for nonequilibrium and equilibrium states, and its balance. Thermodynamic temperature is identified, its positivity follows from the stability of the rest state. It is shown that the equations of engineering thermodynamics are valid for the case of local thermodynamic equilibrium, with inhomogeneous states. The main findings are accompanied by examples and additional discussion to firmly imbed classical and engineering thermodynamics into nonequilibrium thermodynamics.

Description

Keywords

2nd law of thermodynamics, entropy, nonequilibrium, entropy generation, teaching thermodynamics

Citation

Struchtrup, H. (2020). "Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics - The Nonequilibrium Perspective." Entropy 22: 793. https://doi:10.3390/e22070793