New Insights into χ(3) Measurements: Comparing Nonresonant Second Harmonic Generation and Resonant Sum Frequency Generation at the Silica/Aqueous Electrolyte Interface




Rehl, Benjamin
Rashwan, Mokhtar
DeWalt-Kerian, Emma L.
Jarisz, Tasha A.
Darlington, Akemi M.
Hore, Dennis K.
Gibbs, Julianne M.

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The Journal of Physical Chemistry C


Historically, different pH-dependent behaviors at the mineral oxide/aqueous electrolyte interface have been observed by nonresonant second harmonic generation (SHG) and resonant sum frequency generation (SFG), despite a general understanding that both techniques are dominated by the response of water. Here, we compare the two at the silica/aqueous interface at high salt concentration and as a function of pH to shed light on the origins of both measurements. From this comparison and SHG measurements at the silica/air interface, we conclude that SHG originates from the net order of water and the silica substrate, with the latter dominating the observed intensities below pH 6.5. In contrast, SFG is dominated by the higher SF activity, yet a lower number density, of waters that contribute to the low-wavenumber range, according to molecular dynamic simulations. Furthermore, spectral resolution in SFG of oppositely oriented water populations prevents the cancellation of signal, making it more difficult to relate SF intensity to the net order of water.



Interfaces, Nonlinear optics, Silica, Molecules Polarization


Rehl, B.; Rashwan, M.; DeWalt-Kerian, E. L.; Jarisz, T. A.; Darlinton, A. M.; Hore, D. K.; & Gibbs, J. M. (2019). New insights into χ(3) measurements: Comparing nonresonant second harmonic generation and resonant sum frequency generation at silica/aqueous electrolyte interface. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 123(17), 10991-11000. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.9b01300