The Physical Activity Regulation Scale (PARS): Development and validity testing




Rhodes, Ryan E.
Lithopoulos, Alexander

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Health Psychology


Objective: Behavioral regulation tactics used to manage actions after the formation of a physical activity (PA) intention are common to many theories, yet comprehensive measures of PA regulation are scant. Purpose: To develop a reliable instrument of PA regulation and test predictive validity and its capacity to mediate the intention-PA relationship. Methods: To achieve a pool of candidate items, we used the behavior change technique taxonomy as a template, followed by a critical literature review of PA regulation measures to extract exemplar items, and then concluded with a Delphi feedback method (N=4). The main study included a sample representative of the Canadian adult population to explore and then confirm the construct and discriminant validity, and internal consistency reliability of the measure using two independent samples (N=683 and N=727). Finally, using a two-week prospective design, the full sample was used to investigate test re-test reliability, and predictive validity of self-reported PA at Time 2. Results: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses resulted in a reliable 14-item, four-factor measure (internal consistencies >.80) of 1) proactive regulation, 2) reactive regulation, 3) social monitoring, and 4) self-monitoring, we named the Physical Activity Regulation Scale (PARS). The PARS factors explained 18% of PA at Time 2, and mediated the relationship between intention and PA. Conclusion: While continued testing is needed, the initial evidence is supportive that the PARS may be a useful PA behavioral regulation measure to include for use within various theoretical models applied to understand PA.



Self-Monitoring, Planning, Emotion Regulation, Exercise, Adults


Rhodes, R. E., & Lithopoulos, A. (2023). The Physical Activity Regulation Scale: Development and validity testing. Health Psychology, 42(6), 378-387.