A Cross-sectional Examination of HIV, Aging, and Chronic Health Conditions Among Gay and Bisexual Men




Card, Kiffer G.
Lachowsky, Nathan J.
Armstrong, Heather L.
Cui, Zishan
Sereda, Paul
Dickie, Chad
Howard, Terry
Roth, Eric A.
Hogg, Robert S.
Moore, David

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Journal of Men's Health


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between HIV status and the presence of chronic health conditions among gay and bisexual men (gbMSM). Most existing on this topic studies fail to account for behavioral factors—such as smoking and alcohol consumption—or focus on the general population without attention to the unique circumstances of gbMSM. Methods: Sexually active gbMSM, aged >16 years, were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) between February 2012 and February 2015. HIV serology confirmed the HIV status. Chronic health conditions were classified into one of six broader categories (i.e., cardiovascular, cancer, gastrointestinal, respiratory, mental health, and other). Logistic regression models tested whether HIV status was associated with any of the six categories. All these models used an interaction term between HIV status and age, and adjusted for race/ethnicity, annual income, body mass index, daily smoking, and “risky drinking”. Results: Overall, 223 HIV-positive gbMSM and 551 HIV-negative gbMSM reported histories of cardiovascular disease (16.1%), cancer (5.1%), gastrointestinal illness (7.2%), respiratory problems (16.1%), mental health conditions (49.2%), and “other” co-/morbidities (13.1%). Compared with older HIV-negative gbMSM, those with HIV were more likely to report cardiovascular (aOR=1.15, 95% CI:1.07, 1.24) and respiratory (aOR = 1.08, 95% CI:1.02, 1.14) disease. There were no differences by HIV status for other co-/morbidities. Conclusion: Findings support the need for increased resources focused on aging, HIV, and cardiovascular and respiratory health among gbMSM aging with HIV.


The authors would like to thank the Momentum Health Study participants, office staff, and community advisory board, as well as our community partner agencies, Health Initiative for Men, YouthCO HIV & Hep C Society, and Positive Living Society of BC.


aging, comorbidities, chronic health, gay and bisexual men, people living with HIV


Card, K. G., Lachowsky, N. J., Armstrong, H. L., Cui, Z., Sereda, P., Dickie, C., Howard, T., Roth, E. A., Hogg, R. S., & Moore, D. M. (2020). “A Cross-sectional Examination of HIV, Aging, and Chronic Health Conditions Among Gay and Bisexual Men.” Journal of Men's Health, 16(3), E60-E74. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15586/jomh.v16i3.164