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    Human and artificial intelligence collaboration for socially shared regulation in learning
    (British Journal of Educational Technology, 2023) Järvelä, Sanna; Nguyen, Andy; Hadwin, Allyson F.
    Artificial intelligence (AI) has generated a plethora of new opportunities, potential and challenges for understanding and supporting learning. In this paper, we position human and AI collaboration for socially shared regulation (SSRL) in learning. Particularly, this paper reflects on the intersection of human and AI collaboration in SSRL research, which presents an exciting prospect for advancing our understanding and support of learning regulation. Our aim is to operationalize this human-AI collaboration by introducing a novel trigger concept and a hybrid human-AI shared regulation in learning (HASRL) model. Through empirical examples that present AI affordances for SSRL research, we demonstrate how humans and AI can synergistically work together to improve learning regulation. We argue that the integration of human and AI strengths via hybrid intelligence is critical to unlocking a new era in learning sciences research. Our proposed frameworks present an opportunity for empirical evidence and innovative designs that articulate the potential for human-AI collaboration in facilitating effective SSRL in teaching and learning.
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    Development and usability testing of a technology-based intervention for promoting physical activity among post-treatment cancer survivors (WExercise) using the multi-process action control framework
    (Internet Interventions, 2024) Cheung, Denise Shuk Ting; Kwok, Tiffany Wan Han; Liu, Sam; Rhodes, Ryan; Chiang, Chi-Leung; Lin, Chia-Chin
    Background: To promote physical activity in post-treatment cancer survivors, a mobile application WExercise was developed using the Multi-Process Action Control Framework. It contains 10 weekly online lesson to facilitate reflective, regulatory, and reflexive processes to help participants to form and sustain physical activity behavior. Objective: To test the usability and acceptability of WExercise in post-treatment cancer survivors. Methods: This study involved four phases: (1) preparing application content, (2) expert panel review (comprising oncology healthcare workers, exercise specialists, and behavior change researchers), (3) developing the app, and (4) usability test. The usability test was conducted cross-sectionally using direct observation of application navigation tasks, a quantitative survey, and qualitative interviews among 10 post-treatment cancer survivors. Results: In Phase 2, the expert panel rated the application highly on relevance, accuracy, comprehensiveness, meaningfulness, and easiness to understand (average score = 3.83 out of 4). The application was developed accordingly. In Phase 4, the System Usability Score was 75 %, greater than the cut-off point. Participants gave the items assessing acceptance of the application positive ratings (e.g., satisfaction = 4.30 out of 5). Based on the performance and feedback, the application was modified, including adjusting the font size and improving the visualization of buttons. Conclusion: Overall, experts and potential users considered the application relevant, usable, and acceptable. It has the full potential for further testing in a larger trial for its effectiveness in promoting physical activity in cancer survivors.
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    Transforming the landscape of obesity education - The Canadian obesity education competencies
    (Obesity Pillars, 2023) Roshan, Joseph Abraham; Nagpal, Taniya S.; Pearce, Nicole; Dhaliwal, Khushmol K.; El-Hussein, Mohamed; Forhan, Mary; Hadjiyanakis, Stasia; Hawa, Raed; Kushner, Robert F.; Lee-Baggley, Dayna; McMillan, Michelle; Nutter, Sarah; Piccinini-Vallis, Helena; Vallis, Michael; Wharton, Sean; Wiljer, David; Sockalingam, Sanjeev
    Background: With ongoing gaps in obesity education delivery for health professions in Canada and around the world, a transformative shift is needed to address and mitigate weight bias and stigma, and foster evidence-based approaches to obesity assessment and care in the clinical setting. Obesity Canada has created evidence-based obesity competencies for medical education that can guide curriculum development, assessment and evaluation and be applied to health professionals' education programs in Canada and across the world. Methods: The Obesity Canada Education Action Team has seventeen members in health professions education and research along with students and patient experts. Through an iterative group consensus process using four guiding principles, key and enabling obesity competencies were created using the 2015 CanMEDS competency framework as its foundation. These principles included the representation of all CanMEDS Roles throughout the competencies, minimizing duplication with the original CanMEDS competencies, ensuring obesity focused content was informed by the 2020 Adult Obesity Clinical Practice Guidelines and the 2019 US Obesity Medication Education Collaborative Competencies, and emphasizing patient-focused language throughout. Results: A total of thirteen key competencies and thirty-seven enabling competencies make up the Canadian Obesity Education Competencies (COECs). Conclusion: The COECs embed evidence-based approaches to obesity care into one of the most widely used competency-based frameworks in the world, CanMEDS. Crucially, these competencies outline how to address and mitigate the damaging effects of weight bias and stigma in educational and clinical settings. Next steps include the creation of milestones and nested Entrustable Professional Activities, a national report card on obesity education for undergraduate medical education in Canada, and Free Open Access Medication Education content, including podcasts and infographics, for easier adoption into curriculum around the world and across the health professions spectrum.
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    Te Whakahōnere ngā Wawata o te Whānau: Honouring the educational aspirations of Whānau Māori in two English-medium primary schools in the Otago-Southland regions in Aotearoa New Zealand
    (The Australian Journal of Indigenous Education, 2019) Whitinui, Paul
    This paper reports on the preliminary findings of a study carried out in two English-medium primary (elementary) schools (years 1–6) located in the Otago-Southland regions between 2014 and 2015. The purpose of the study aimed to explore the educational aspirations whānau Ma¯ori (i.e., Māori family) want for their children, and to build better relationships for teaching and learning in these two schools. The opportunity to bring whānau Māori together using a school hui (i.e., formal school meeting) process, not only created a culturally safe space for whānau Māori to share their thoughts, ideas and concerns about their children’s education, but it also provided an opportunity for constructive feedback, and a greater awareness of the success enablers for whānau Māori and their children. A key finding to emerge, is that, whānau Māori not only see the provision of schooling and education for their children as an extension of who they are as culturally connected learners, but also as a medium for learning more about their own cultural norms, values, beliefs, strengths and attributes.
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    Implementation and scale-up of physical activity and behavioural nutrition interventions: An evaluation roadmap
    (International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 2019) McKay, Heather; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Lau, Erica; Gray, Samantha M.; Wolfenden, Luke; Milat, Andrew; Bauman, Adrian; Race, Douglas; Nettlefold, Lindsay; Sims-Gould, Joanie
    Background: Interventions that work must be effectively delivered at scale to achieve population level benefits. Researchers must choose among a vast array of implementation frameworks (> 60) that guide design and evaluation of implementation and scale-up processes. Therefore, we sought to recommend conceptual frameworks that can be used to design, inform, and evaluate implementation of physical activity (PA) and nutrition interventions at different stages of the program life cycle. We also sought to recommend a minimum data set of implementation outcome and determinant variables (indicators) as well as measures and tools deemed most relevant for PA and nutrition researchers. Methods: We adopted a five-round modified Delphi methodology. For rounds 1, 2, and 3 we administered online surveys to PA and nutrition implementation scientists to generate a rank order list of most commonly used; i) implementation and scale-up frameworks, ii) implementation indicators, and iii) implementation and scale-up measures and tools. Measures and tools were excluded after round 2 as input from participants was very limited. For rounds 4 and 5, we conducted two in-person meetings with an expert group to create a shortlist of implementation and scale-up frameworks, identify a minimum data set of indicators and to discuss application and relevance of frameworks and indicators to the field of PA and nutrition. Results: The two most commonly referenced implementation frameworks were the Framework for Effective Implementation and the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. We provide the 25 most highly ranked implementation indicators reported by those who participated in rounds 1–3 of the survey. From these, the expert group created a recommended minimum data set of implementation determinants (n = 10) and implementation outcomes (n = 5) and reconciled differences in commonly used terms and definitions. Conclusions: Researchers are confronted with myriad options when conducting implementation and scale-up evaluations. Thus, we identified and prioritized a list of frameworks and a minimum data set of indicators that have potential to improve the quality and consistency of evaluating implementation and scale-up of PA and nutrition interventions. Advancing our science is predicated upon increased efforts to develop a common ‘language’ and adaptable measures and tools.
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    Kapa Haka "Voices": Exploring the educational benefits of a culturally responsive learning environment in four New Zealand mainstream secondary schools
    (Learning Communities: International Journal of Learning in Social Contexts, 2010) Whitinui, Paul
    Kapa (in rows) haka (dance) is considered a modern day performing art distinctive to what mainstream secondary schools (i.e., high schools Yrs 9-13) in Aotearoa New Zealand offer as way of fostering the social and cultural wellbeing of Māori students who attend. It is also considered a culturally responsive learning environment because it provides opportunities for Māori students to engage in learning more about their own language, culture and traditional ways of knowing and doing. With over 54 thousand Māori students (18%) attending mainstream secondary schools in Aotearoa New Zealand (Ministry of Education 2006), this paper, based on my doctoral research completed in 2007, explores the ‘voices’ of 20 Māori students and 27 secondary school teachers about the educational benefits associated with participating in kapa haka and the implications for improving educational outcomes for these students. The study concluded that the most effective way to improve levels of participation (i.e., interest, attendance, engagement, association and success) working with Māori secondary school students is to employ learning environments that are socially, culturally, emotionally and spiritually uplifting and in particular, to assign learning activities that are specifically linked to their unique identity as Māori. A number of key social and cultural considerations are included to assist mainstream secondary schools (i.e., public State-funded high schools) and teachers to not only better evaluate their own levels of cultural responsiveness working with Maori students but to also improve their understanding of what constitutes effective ways of engaging indigenous and culturally-connected learners in these contexts.
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    The influence of perceptions of competence on motor skills and physical activity in middle childhood: a test of mediation
    (International Journal of Environment Research and Public Health, 2023) Crane, Jeff R.; Foley, John T.; Temple, Viviene A.
    The mediating effect of perceptions of physical competence (PPC) on the relationship between motor competence and physical activity levels is documented in adolescence. However, it is unclear at what age this begins. In this study, we examined whether PPC mediated the relationship between moderate–vigorous physical activity (MVPA) or sedentary behaviour and motor competence in middle childhood. The participants were 129 children (mean age = 8.3 years) from eight elementary schools. MVPA and sedentary behaviour were measured using Actigraph accelerometers, and motor competence was assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development, Second Edition. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children and The Self-Perception Profile for Children were used to assess PPC. In this study, PPC did not predict either MVPA or engagement in sedentary behaviours. Further, structural equation modelling revealed that PPC did not mediate the relationship between motor competence and MVPA or between motor competence and sedentary behaviour. These results suggest that at 8 years of age, children’s perceptions do not influence their participation in physical activities. It is possible that factors influencing PPC, such as peer comparisons and performance outcomes, have more impact in later childhood or adolescence. In turn, those perceptions may affect children’s or adolescents’ choices to opt in or out of physical activities.
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    Curriculum projects, learner agency and young people’s fullness of life
    (The Curriculum Journal, 2021) Raffo, Carlo; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Buck, Rob; Hodson, Patsy
    A recent article in this journal suggests that although learner agency is central to understanding young people's engagement with the curriculum, there is little exploration of such ideas in the field. In response, they argued for an Archerian approach to learner agency and a contextually, interpersonally, intra-personally and temporally situated curriculum that suggests the centrality of young people's educational reflexivity and associated learner agency for mediating the structural aspects of their educational lives. We reflect on this thinking through the lens of a curriculum project the design of which was similarly inspired by the work of Margaret Archer. We do so through the eyes of Grace, one of the young participants in the project. We learn from Grace that learner agency and curriculum engagement is not, as Archer's framework suggests, a substantively self-authored reflexive endeavour that can be made amenable to change through a bespoke curriculum project. Rather learner (agency) in young people might be more accurately theorised in pragmatist terms as something embedded in the drama of the fullness of their everyday lives of which the curriculum represents just a tiny part. The implications for the field of learner agency and curriculum studies are discussed.
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    Can principal component analysis be used to explore the relationship of rowing kinematics and force production in elite rowers during a step test? A pilot study
    (Machine Learning & Knowledge Extraction, 2023) Jensen, Matt; Stellingwerff, Trent; Pollock, Courtney; Wakeling, James; Klimstra, Marc
    Investigating the relationship between the movement patterns of multiple limb segments during the rowing stroke on the resulting force production in elite rowers can provide foundational insight into optimal technique. It can also highlight potential mechanisms of injury and performance improvement. The purpose of this study was to conduct a kinematic analysis of the rowing stroke together with force production during a step test in elite national-team heavyweight men to evaluate the fundamental patterns that contribute to expert performance. Twelve elite heavyweight male rowers performed a step test on a row-perfect sliding ergometer [5 × 1 min with 1 min rest at set stroke rates (20, 24, 28, 32, 36)]. Joint angle displacement and velocity of the hip, knee and elbow were measured with electrogoniometers, and force was measured with a tension/compression force transducer in line with the handle. To explore interactions between kinematic patterns and stroke performance variables, joint angular velocities of the hip, knee and elbow were entered into principal component analysis (PCA) and separate ANCOVAs were run for each performance variable (peak force, impulse, split time) with dependent variables, and the kinematic loading scores (Kpc,ls) as covariates with athlete/stroke rate as fixed factors. The results suggested that rowers’ kinematic patterns respond differently across varying stroke rates. The first seven PCs accounted for 79.5% (PC1 [26.4%], PC2 [14.6%], PC3 [11.3%], PC4 [8.4%], PC5 [7.5%], PC6 [6.5%], PC7 [4.8%]) of the variances in the signal. The PCs contributing significantly (p ≤ 0.05) to performance metrics based on PC loading scores from an ANCOVA were (PC1, PC2, PC6) for split time, (PC3, PC4, PC5, PC6) for impulse, and (PC1, PC6, PC7) for peak force. The significant PCs for each performance measure were used to reconstruct the kinematic patterns for split time, impulse and peak force separately. Overall, PCA was able to differentiate between rowers and stroke rates, and revealed features of the rowing-stroke technique correlated with measures of performance that may highlight meaningful technique-optimization strategies. PCA could be used to provide insight into differences in kinematic strategies that could result in suboptimal performance, potential asymmetries or to determine how well a desired technique change has been accomplished by group and/or individual athletes.
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    A scoping review of obesity education interventions for current and prospective medical professionals in Canada
    (Obesity Pillars, 2023) Nagpal, Taniya S.; Pearce, Nicole; Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Hawa, Raed; Dhaliwal, Khushmol K.; Lee-Baggley, Dana; El-Hussein, Mohamed; Nutter, Sarah; Piccinini-Vallis, Helena; Vallis, Michael; Dennett, Liz; Forhan, Mary; Hadjiyanakkis, Stasia; Kushner, Robert F.; McMillan, Michelle; Wharton, Sean; Wiljer, David; Abraham, Joseph Roshan
    Background: Obesity is a prevalent chronic disease in Canada. Individuals living with obesity frequently interact with medical professionals who must be prepared to provide evidence-based and person-centred care options. The purpose of this scoping review was to summarize existing educational interventions on obesity in Canada for current and prospective medical professionals and to identify key future directions for practice and research. Methods: A scoping review was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for scoping reviews. The search strategy was conducted using Medline (via PubMed), Embase, Eric, CBCA, Proquest Education, and Proquest Theses. The inclusion criteria included delivery of an educational intervention on obesity for current medical professionals, medical undergraduate trainees, or residents administered in Canada. Data were extracted from the included studies to thematically summarize the intervention content, and main outcomes assessed. Future directions for research and practice were identified. Results: Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. The interventions ranged in terms of the mode of delivery, including interactive in-person workshops and seminars, online learning modules, webinars, and videos. The main outcomes assessed were attitudes towards patients living with obesity, self-efficacy for having sensitive obesity-related discussions, skills to assess obesity and provision of management options. All studies reported improvements in the outcomes. Future directions identified were the need to develop standardized obesity competencies for inclusion across medical education programs, further research on effective pedagogical approaches to integrating content into existing curricula and the need for broader awareness and assessment of the quality of obesity education resources. Conclusion: Although there have been few obesity-specific educational interventions for current and prospective medical professionals in Canada, existing evidence shows positive learning outcomes. These findings advocate for continued investment in the development of obesity medical training and educational interventions.
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    Evaluation of different pressure-based foot contact event detection algorithms across different slopes and speeds
    (Sensors, 2023) Blades, Samuel; Marriot, Hunter; Hundza, Sandra; Honert, Eric C.; Stellingwerff, Trent; Klimstra, Marc
    If validated, in-shoe pressure measuring technology allows for the field-based quantification of running gait, including kinematic and kinetic measures. Different algorithmic methods have been proposed to determine foot contact events from in-shoe pressure insole systems, however, these methods have not been evaluated for accuracy, reliability against a gold standard using running data across different slopes, and speeds. Using data from a plantar pressure measurement system, seven different foot contact event detection algorithms based on pressure signals (pressure sum) were compared to vertical ground reaction force data collected from a force instrumented treadmill. Subjects ran on level ground at 2.6, 3.0, 3.4, and 3.8 m/s, six degrees (10.5%) inclined at 2.6, 2.8, and 3.0 m/s, and six degrees declined at 2.6, 2.8, 3.0, and 3.4 m/s. The best performing foot contact event detection algorithm showed maximal mean absolute errors of only 1.0 ms and 5.2 ms for foot contact and foot off, respectively, on level grade, when compared to a 40 N ascending and descending force threshold from the force treadmill data. Additionally, this algorithm was unaffected by grade and had similar levels of errors across all grades.
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    Correlates of physical activity participation among individuals diagnosed with cancer: An application of the Multi-Process Action Control framework
    (International Journal of Environment Research and Public Health, 2023) Tabaczynski, Allyson; Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Kelly P.; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Sabiston, Catherine M.; Trinh, Linda
    Background: The purpose of this study was to test Multi-Process Action Control (M-PAC) processes as correlates of physical activity (PA) intention formation and translation (i.e., action control) in individuals diagnosed with cancer. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional survey, completed from July to November of 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic. PA and M-PAC processes were self-reported using the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire and questionnaires for reflective (instrumental/affective attitudes, perceived opportunity/capability), regulatory (e.g., goal-setting, planning), and reflexive processes (habit, identity). Separate hierarchical multinomial logistic regression models determined correlates of intention formation and action control. Results: Participants (n = 347; Mage= 48.2 ± 15.6) were primarily diagnosed with breast cancer (27.4%) and at a localized stage (85.0%). Most participants intended to perform PA (70.9%), yet only 50.4% met guidelines. Affective judgements (p < 0.001) and perceived capability (p < 0.01) were significantly associated with intention formation. Preliminary models indicated employment, affective judgements, perceived capability, and self-regulation to be significant (ps < 0.05) correlates of action control, but in the final model, only surgical treatment (p = 0.02) and PA identity (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with action control. Conclusion: Reflective processes were associated with PA intention formation, while reflexive processes were associated with PA action control. Behavior change efforts for individuals diagnosed with cancer should extend beyond social-cognitive approaches to include regulatory and reflexive processes of PA behavior (i.e., PA identity).
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    Characterization of the Kinetyx SI wireless pressure-measuring insole during benchtop testing and running gait
    (Sensors, 2023) Blades, Samuel; Jensen, Matt; Stellingwerff, Trent; Hundza, Sandra; Klimstra, Marc
    This study characterized the absolute pressure measurement error and reliability of a new fully integrated (Kinetyx, SI) plantar-pressure measurement system (PPMS) versus an industry-standard PPMS (F-Scan, Tekscan) during an established benchtop testing protocol as well as via a research-grade, instrumented treadmill (Bertec) during a running protocol. Benchtop testing results showed that both SI and F-Scan had strong positive linearity (Pearson’s correlation coefficient, PCC = 0.86–0.97, PCC = 0.87–0.92; RMSE = 15.96 ± 9.49) and mean root mean squared error RMSE (9.17 ± 2.02) compared to the F-Scan on a progressive loading step test. The SI and F-Scan had comparable results for linearity and hysteresis on a sinusoidal loading test (PCC = 0.92–0.99; 5.04 ± 1.41; PCC = 0.94–0.99; 6.15 ± 1.39, respectively). SI had less mean RMSE (6.19 ± 1.38) than the F-Scan (8.66 ±2.31) on the sinusoidal test and less absolute error (4.08 ± 3.26) than the F-Scan (16.38 ± 12.43) on a static test. Both the SI and F-Scan had near-perfect between-day reliability interclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.97–1.00) to the F-Scan (ICC = 0.96–1.00). During running, the SI pressure output had a near-perfect linearity and low RMSE compared to the force measurement from the Bertec treadmill. However, the SI pressure output had a mean hysteresis of 7.67% with a 28.47% maximum hysteresis, which may have implications for the accurate quantification of kinetic gait measures during running.
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    Piloting the virtual PLAYshop program: a parent-focused physical literacy intervention for early childhood
    (Children, 2023) Hwang, Yeongho; Boyd, Madison; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Liu, Sam; Moldenhauer, Ramiah; Li, Joshua; Wright, Chris; Buckler, E. Jean; Carson, Valerie
    The PLAYshop program is a parent-focused physical literacy intervention for early childhood. This single-group mixed-methods pilot study aimed to explore the feasibility of virtually delivering and assessing the PLAYshop program. The virtual PLAYshop program included a virtual workshop, resources/basic equipment, and two booster emails (3-week and 6-week follow-up). Data on 34 preschool-aged children (3–5 years) and their parents from Edmonton and Victoria, Canada, were collected via an online questionnaire, virtual assessment session, and interview at single or multiple time points (baseline, post-workshop, 2-month follow-up). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), paired t-tests, repeated measures ANOVAs, and thematic analyses were conducted. Regarding feasibility, most parents (≥94%) were satisfied/extremely satisfied with the virtual workshop and planned to continue physical literacy activities post-workshop. The virtual assessment protocol for children’s fundamental movement skills (FMS; overhand throw, underhand throw, horizontal jump, hop, one-leg balance) was feasible, with high completion rates (>90%) and reliable scoring (ICC = 0.79–0.99). For positive changes in potential outcomes, a medium effect size was observed for children’s hopping skills (d = 0.54), and large effect sizes were observed for several parental outcomes (partial η² = 0.20–0.54). The findings support the feasibility and potential positive outcomes of the virtual PLAYshop program. A larger randomized controlled efficacy trial is recommended.
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    The Physical Activity Regulation Scale (PARS): Development and validity testing
    (Health Psychology, 2023) Rhodes, Ryan E.; Lithopoulos, Alexander
    Objective: Behavioral regulation tactics used to manage actions after the formation of a physical activity (PA) intention are common to many theories, yet comprehensive measures of PA regulation are scant. Purpose: To develop a reliable instrument of PA regulation and test predictive validity and its capacity to mediate the intention-PA relationship. Methods: To achieve a pool of candidate items, we used the behavior change technique taxonomy as a template, followed by a critical literature review of PA regulation measures to extract exemplar items, and then concluded with a Delphi feedback method (N=4). The main study included a sample representative of the Canadian adult population to explore and then confirm the construct and discriminant validity, and internal consistency reliability of the measure using two independent samples (N=683 and N=727). Finally, using a two-week prospective design, the full sample was used to investigate test re-test reliability, and predictive validity of self-reported PA at Time 2. Results: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses resulted in a reliable 14-item, four-factor measure (internal consistencies >.80) of 1) proactive regulation, 2) reactive regulation, 3) social monitoring, and 4) self-monitoring, we named the Physical Activity Regulation Scale (PARS). The PARS factors explained 18% of PA at Time 2, and mediated the relationship between intention and PA. Conclusion: While continued testing is needed, the initial evidence is supportive that the PARS may be a useful PA behavioral regulation measure to include for use within various theoretical models applied to understand PA.
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    Wheelchair rugby sprint force-velocity modeling using inertial measurement units and sport specific parameters: A proof of concept
    (Sensors, 2023) Klimstra, Marc; Geneau, Daniel; Lacriox, Melissa; Jensen, Matt; Greenshields, Joel; Cormier, Patrick; Brodie, Ryan; Commandeur, Drew; Tsai, Ming-Chang
    Background: Para-sports such as wheelchair rugby have seen increased use of inertial measurement units (IMU) to measure wheelchair mobility. The accessibility and accuracy of IMUs have enabled the quantification of many wheelchair metrics and the ability to further advance analyses such as force-velocity (FV) profiling. However, the FV modeling approach has not been refined to include wheelchair specific parameters. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare wheelchair rugby sprint FV profiles, developed from a wheel-mounted IMU, using current mono-exponential modeling techniques against a dynamic resistive force model with wheelchair specific resistance coefficients. Methods: Eighteen athletes from a national wheelchair rugby program performed 2 × 45 m all-out sprints on an indoor hardwood court surface. Results: Velocity modelling displayed high agreeability, with an average RMSE of 0.235 ± 0.07 m/s−1 and r2 of 0.946 ± 0.02. Further, the wheelchair specific resistive force model resulted in greater force and power outcomes, better aligning with previously collected measures. Conclusions: The present study highlights the proof of concept that a wheel-mounted IMU combined with wheelchair-specific FV modelling provided estimates of force and power that better account for the resistive forces encountered by wheelchair rugby athletes.
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    Examining the Canadian 24-hour movement guidelines among adults with intellectual disability: A pilot study
    (International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2023) Coats, John Cooper; Coxon, Matthew; Temple, Viviene A.; Butler, Cara; Stuart-Hill, Lynneth
    The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the extent to which adults with intellectual disability (ID) met the 2020 Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines. Fifteen adults (six females and nine males) participated in this nine-day observational study (age = 20–64 years) in 2021–2022, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary time, and total sleep time were measured with a smartwatch to compare to the guidelines. A diary subjectively tracked physical activity. Of the 15 participants, 11 met the MVPA guidelines (73%), 4 met the sedentary behaviour guidelines (27%), 7 met the sleep guidelines (47%), and only 1 participant met all 3 of the guidelines (7%). There were no differences in physical activity or sleep between weekends and weekdays, or between males and females. Walking, cleaning dishes, and swimming were the most common types of physical activity performed by the participants. The findings of this pilot study indicate the need to improve sleep and reduce sedentary time in adults with ID. As most participants met the MVPA guidelines, few met the sedentary behaviour guidelines, and nearly half met the sleep guidelines, these data also demonstrate how important it is to assess all three aspects of the movement guidelines. All these behaviours have independent health benefits and risks, which interact to influence overall health.
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    A simple and valid method to calculate wheelchair frame rotation using one wheel-mounted IMU
    (Sensors, 2023) Klimstra, Marc; Lacroix, Melissa; Jensen, Matt; Greenshields, Joel; Geneau, Daniel; Cormier, Patrick; Brodie, Ryan; Commandeur, Drew; Tsai, Ming-Chang
    Wheelchair sports have been using Inertial Measurement Units (IMU) to measure mobility metrics during training, testing and competition. Presently, the most suitable solution to calculate wheelchair speed and frame rotation is the 3IMU method as there is uncertainty about the ability of a one wheel-mounted IMU (1IMU) approach to calculate wheelchair frame rotational kinematics. A new method for calculating wheelchair frame rotational kinematics using a single wheel-mounted IMU is presented and compared to a criterion measurement using a wheelchair-frame-mounted IMU. Goodness-of-fit statistics demonstrate very strong linear relationships between wheelchair frame angular velocity calculated from the wheel-mounted IMUs and a wheelchair-frame-mounted IMU. Root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and Bland–Altman analysis show very small differences between the wheelchair frame angular velocity calculated from the wheel-mounted IMUs and the wheelchair-frame-mounted IMU. This study has demonstrated a simple and accurate approach to estimating wheelchair frame rotation using one wheel-mounted IMU during an elite wheelchair athlete agility task. Future research is needed to reexamine and compare wheelchair mobility metrics determined using the 3IMU and 1IMU solutions using this new approach.
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    Family-based physical activity interventions and family functioning: A systematic review
    (Family Process, 2023) Rhodes, Ryan E.; Hollman, Heather; Sui, Wuyou
    Family physical activity (PA) can confer multiple health benefits, yet whether PA interventions affect general family functioning has not been appraised. The purpose of this review was to evaluate studies that have examined the effect of family PA interventions, where child PA was the focus of the intervention, on constructs of family functioning. Literature searches were concluded on January 11, 2022 using seven common databases. Eligible studies were in English, utilized a family PA intervention, and assessed a measure of family functioning as a study outcome. The initial search yielded 8413 hits, which was reduced to 20 independent PA interventions of mixed quality after screening for eligibility criteria. There was mixed evidence for whether family PA interventions affected overall family functioning; however, analyses of subdomains indicated that family cohesion is improved by PA interventions when children are in the early school years (aged 5–12). High-quality studies also showed an impact of family PA interventions on family organization. Targeted interventions at specific family subsystems (e.g., father–son, mother–daughter), characteristics (low-income, clinical populations, girls), and broad multibehavioral interventions may have the most reliable effects. Overall, the findings show that family PA interventions can promote family cohesion and organization, particularly among families with children in the early school years. Higher quality research, employing randomized trial designs and targeting specific intervention and sample characteristics (e.g., different clinical conditions, specific parent–child dyads), is recommended in order to better ascertain the effectiveness of these approaches.
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    Reorganizing after the pandemic: A chance to energize physical activity promotion
    (Current Issues in Sport Science (CISS), 2022) Rhodes, Ryan E.
    In this commentary on “What is needed to promote physical activity? – Current trends and new perspectives in theory, intervention, and implementation” I discuss my support for the many health, social, and economic benefits of moving more and sitting less as detailed by the authors. I discuss my agreement with the challenges of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic, and that while effective promotion initiatives founded on socioecological whole system approaches seem most logical, the role of individual is still essential for downstream uptake of physical activity. Like the authors, I include my support for the testing, development, and assumptions underlying dual-process theories using real time data-capture, in addition to more sophisticated longitudinal dynamic modeling to translate findings into just-in-time intervention approaches. In addition, however, I highlight it is still important for researchers and practitioners to focus on the role of reflective factors, such as building strong intentions to engage in physical activity, and subsequent self-regulation skills to translate these intentions into action. Furthering our understanding on the distinctions between initiation and maintenance of movement behaviors is important to advance theory and practice and the role of apex-system variables such as self- and social identity may hold considerable utility in physical activity science. I suggest that finding meaning in movement behaviors beyond exercise is critical to reorganizing and reenergizing after the pandemic to promote physical activity.
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