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    The influence of perceptions of competence on motor skills and physical activity in middle childhood: a test of mediation
    (International Journal of Environment Research and Public Health, 2023) Crane, Jeff R.; Foley, John T.; Temple, Viviene A.
    The mediating effect of perceptions of physical competence (PPC) on the relationship between motor competence and physical activity levels is documented in adolescence. However, it is unclear at what age this begins. In this study, we examined whether PPC mediated the relationship between moderate–vigorous physical activity (MVPA) or sedentary behaviour and motor competence in middle childhood. The participants were 129 children (mean age = 8.3 years) from eight elementary schools. MVPA and sedentary behaviour were measured using Actigraph accelerometers, and motor competence was assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development, Second Edition. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children and The Self-Perception Profile for Children were used to assess PPC. In this study, PPC did not predict either MVPA or engagement in sedentary behaviours. Further, structural equation modelling revealed that PPC did not mediate the relationship between motor competence and MVPA or between motor competence and sedentary behaviour. These results suggest that at 8 years of age, children’s perceptions do not influence their participation in physical activities. It is possible that factors influencing PPC, such as peer comparisons and performance outcomes, have more impact in later childhood or adolescence. In turn, those perceptions may affect children’s or adolescents’ choices to opt in or out of physical activities.
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    Curriculum projects, learner agency and young people’s fullness of life
    (The Curriculum Journal, 2021) Raffo, Carlo; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Buck, Rob; Hodson, Patsy
    A recent article in this journal suggests that although learner agency is central to understanding young people's engagement with the curriculum, there is little exploration of such ideas in the field. In response, they argued for an Archerian approach to learner agency and a contextually, interpersonally, intra-personally and temporally situated curriculum that suggests the centrality of young people's educational reflexivity and associated learner agency for mediating the structural aspects of their educational lives. We reflect on this thinking through the lens of a curriculum project the design of which was similarly inspired by the work of Margaret Archer. We do so through the eyes of Grace, one of the young participants in the project. We learn from Grace that learner agency and curriculum engagement is not, as Archer's framework suggests, a substantively self-authored reflexive endeavour that can be made amenable to change through a bespoke curriculum project. Rather learner (agency) in young people might be more accurately theorised in pragmatist terms as something embedded in the drama of the fullness of their everyday lives of which the curriculum represents just a tiny part. The implications for the field of learner agency and curriculum studies are discussed.
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    Can principal component analysis be used to explore the relationship of rowing kinematics and force production in elite rowers during a step test? A pilot study
    (Machine Learning & Knowledge Extraction, 2023) Jensen, Matt; Stellingwerff, Trent; Pollock, Courtney; Wakeling, James; Klimstra, Marc
    Investigating the relationship between the movement patterns of multiple limb segments during the rowing stroke on the resulting force production in elite rowers can provide foundational insight into optimal technique. It can also highlight potential mechanisms of injury and performance improvement. The purpose of this study was to conduct a kinematic analysis of the rowing stroke together with force production during a step test in elite national-team heavyweight men to evaluate the fundamental patterns that contribute to expert performance. Twelve elite heavyweight male rowers performed a step test on a row-perfect sliding ergometer [5 × 1 min with 1 min rest at set stroke rates (20, 24, 28, 32, 36)]. Joint angle displacement and velocity of the hip, knee and elbow were measured with electrogoniometers, and force was measured with a tension/compression force transducer in line with the handle. To explore interactions between kinematic patterns and stroke performance variables, joint angular velocities of the hip, knee and elbow were entered into principal component analysis (PCA) and separate ANCOVAs were run for each performance variable (peak force, impulse, split time) with dependent variables, and the kinematic loading scores (Kpc,ls) as covariates with athlete/stroke rate as fixed factors. The results suggested that rowers’ kinematic patterns respond differently across varying stroke rates. The first seven PCs accounted for 79.5% (PC1 [26.4%], PC2 [14.6%], PC3 [11.3%], PC4 [8.4%], PC5 [7.5%], PC6 [6.5%], PC7 [4.8%]) of the variances in the signal. The PCs contributing significantly (p ≤ 0.05) to performance metrics based on PC loading scores from an ANCOVA were (PC1, PC2, PC6) for split time, (PC3, PC4, PC5, PC6) for impulse, and (PC1, PC6, PC7) for peak force. The significant PCs for each performance measure were used to reconstruct the kinematic patterns for split time, impulse and peak force separately. Overall, PCA was able to differentiate between rowers and stroke rates, and revealed features of the rowing-stroke technique correlated with measures of performance that may highlight meaningful technique-optimization strategies. PCA could be used to provide insight into differences in kinematic strategies that could result in suboptimal performance, potential asymmetries or to determine how well a desired technique change has been accomplished by group and/or individual athletes.
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    A scoping review of obesity education interventions for current and prospective medical professionals in Canada
    (Obesity Pillars, 2023) Nagpal, Taniya S.; Pearce, Nicole; Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Hawa, Raed; Dhaliwal, Khushmol K.; Lee-Baggley, Dana; El-Hussein, Mohamed; Nutter, Sarah; Piccinini-Vallis, Helena; Vallis, Michael; Dennett, Liz; Forhan, Mary; Hadjiyanakkis, Stasia; Kushner, Robert F.; McMillan, Michelle; Wharton, Sean; Wiljer, David; Abraham, Joseph Roshan
    Background: Obesity is a prevalent chronic disease in Canada. Individuals living with obesity frequently interact with medical professionals who must be prepared to provide evidence-based and person-centred care options. The purpose of this scoping review was to summarize existing educational interventions on obesity in Canada for current and prospective medical professionals and to identify key future directions for practice and research. Methods: A scoping review was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for scoping reviews. The search strategy was conducted using Medline (via PubMed), Embase, Eric, CBCA, Proquest Education, and Proquest Theses. The inclusion criteria included delivery of an educational intervention on obesity for current medical professionals, medical undergraduate trainees, or residents administered in Canada. Data were extracted from the included studies to thematically summarize the intervention content, and main outcomes assessed. Future directions for research and practice were identified. Results: Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. The interventions ranged in terms of the mode of delivery, including interactive in-person workshops and seminars, online learning modules, webinars, and videos. The main outcomes assessed were attitudes towards patients living with obesity, self-efficacy for having sensitive obesity-related discussions, skills to assess obesity and provision of management options. All studies reported improvements in the outcomes. Future directions identified were the need to develop standardized obesity competencies for inclusion across medical education programs, further research on effective pedagogical approaches to integrating content into existing curricula and the need for broader awareness and assessment of the quality of obesity education resources. Conclusion: Although there have been few obesity-specific educational interventions for current and prospective medical professionals in Canada, existing evidence shows positive learning outcomes. These findings advocate for continued investment in the development of obesity medical training and educational interventions.
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    Evaluation of different pressure-based foot contact event detection algorithms across different slopes and speeds
    (Sensors, 2023) Blades, Samuel; Marriot, Hunter; Hundza, Sandra; Honert, Eric C.; Stellingwerff, Trent; Klimstra, Marc
    If validated, in-shoe pressure measuring technology allows for the field-based quantification of running gait, including kinematic and kinetic measures. Different algorithmic methods have been proposed to determine foot contact events from in-shoe pressure insole systems, however, these methods have not been evaluated for accuracy, reliability against a gold standard using running data across different slopes, and speeds. Using data from a plantar pressure measurement system, seven different foot contact event detection algorithms based on pressure signals (pressure sum) were compared to vertical ground reaction force data collected from a force instrumented treadmill. Subjects ran on level ground at 2.6, 3.0, 3.4, and 3.8 m/s, six degrees (10.5%) inclined at 2.6, 2.8, and 3.0 m/s, and six degrees declined at 2.6, 2.8, 3.0, and 3.4 m/s. The best performing foot contact event detection algorithm showed maximal mean absolute errors of only 1.0 ms and 5.2 ms for foot contact and foot off, respectively, on level grade, when compared to a 40 N ascending and descending force threshold from the force treadmill data. Additionally, this algorithm was unaffected by grade and had similar levels of errors across all grades.
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    Correlates of physical activity participation among individuals diagnosed with cancer: An application of the Multi-Process Action Control framework
    (International Journal of Environment Research and Public Health, 2023) Tabaczynski, Allyson; Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Kelly P.; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Sabiston, Catherine M.; Trinh, Linda
    Background: The purpose of this study was to test Multi-Process Action Control (M-PAC) processes as correlates of physical activity (PA) intention formation and translation (i.e., action control) in individuals diagnosed with cancer. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional survey, completed from July to November of 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic. PA and M-PAC processes were self-reported using the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire and questionnaires for reflective (instrumental/affective attitudes, perceived opportunity/capability), regulatory (e.g., goal-setting, planning), and reflexive processes (habit, identity). Separate hierarchical multinomial logistic regression models determined correlates of intention formation and action control. Results: Participants (n = 347; Mage= 48.2 ± 15.6) were primarily diagnosed with breast cancer (27.4%) and at a localized stage (85.0%). Most participants intended to perform PA (70.9%), yet only 50.4% met guidelines. Affective judgements (p < 0.001) and perceived capability (p < 0.01) were significantly associated with intention formation. Preliminary models indicated employment, affective judgements, perceived capability, and self-regulation to be significant (ps < 0.05) correlates of action control, but in the final model, only surgical treatment (p = 0.02) and PA identity (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with action control. Conclusion: Reflective processes were associated with PA intention formation, while reflexive processes were associated with PA action control. Behavior change efforts for individuals diagnosed with cancer should extend beyond social-cognitive approaches to include regulatory and reflexive processes of PA behavior (i.e., PA identity).
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    Characterization of the Kinetyx SI wireless pressure-measuring insole during benchtop testing and running gait
    (Sensors, 2023) Blades, Samuel; Jensen, Matt; Stellingwerff, Trent; Hundza, Sandra; Klimstra, Marc
    This study characterized the absolute pressure measurement error and reliability of a new fully integrated (Kinetyx, SI) plantar-pressure measurement system (PPMS) versus an industry-standard PPMS (F-Scan, Tekscan) during an established benchtop testing protocol as well as via a research-grade, instrumented treadmill (Bertec) during a running protocol. Benchtop testing results showed that both SI and F-Scan had strong positive linearity (Pearson’s correlation coefficient, PCC = 0.86–0.97, PCC = 0.87–0.92; RMSE = 15.96 ± 9.49) and mean root mean squared error RMSE (9.17 ± 2.02) compared to the F-Scan on a progressive loading step test. The SI and F-Scan had comparable results for linearity and hysteresis on a sinusoidal loading test (PCC = 0.92–0.99; 5.04 ± 1.41; PCC = 0.94–0.99; 6.15 ± 1.39, respectively). SI had less mean RMSE (6.19 ± 1.38) than the F-Scan (8.66 ±2.31) on the sinusoidal test and less absolute error (4.08 ± 3.26) than the F-Scan (16.38 ± 12.43) on a static test. Both the SI and F-Scan had near-perfect between-day reliability interclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.97–1.00) to the F-Scan (ICC = 0.96–1.00). During running, the SI pressure output had a near-perfect linearity and low RMSE compared to the force measurement from the Bertec treadmill. However, the SI pressure output had a mean hysteresis of 7.67% with a 28.47% maximum hysteresis, which may have implications for the accurate quantification of kinetic gait measures during running.
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    Piloting the virtual PLAYshop program: a parent-focused physical literacy intervention for early childhood
    (Children, 2023) Hwang, Yeongho; Boyd, Madison; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Liu, Sam; Moldenhauer, Ramiah; Li, Joshua; Wright, Chris; Buckler, E. Jean; Carson, Valerie
    The PLAYshop program is a parent-focused physical literacy intervention for early childhood. This single-group mixed-methods pilot study aimed to explore the feasibility of virtually delivering and assessing the PLAYshop program. The virtual PLAYshop program included a virtual workshop, resources/basic equipment, and two booster emails (3-week and 6-week follow-up). Data on 34 preschool-aged children (3–5 years) and their parents from Edmonton and Victoria, Canada, were collected via an online questionnaire, virtual assessment session, and interview at single or multiple time points (baseline, post-workshop, 2-month follow-up). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), paired t-tests, repeated measures ANOVAs, and thematic analyses were conducted. Regarding feasibility, most parents (≥94%) were satisfied/extremely satisfied with the virtual workshop and planned to continue physical literacy activities post-workshop. The virtual assessment protocol for children’s fundamental movement skills (FMS; overhand throw, underhand throw, horizontal jump, hop, one-leg balance) was feasible, with high completion rates (>90%) and reliable scoring (ICC = 0.79–0.99). For positive changes in potential outcomes, a medium effect size was observed for children’s hopping skills (d = 0.54), and large effect sizes were observed for several parental outcomes (partial η² = 0.20–0.54). The findings support the feasibility and potential positive outcomes of the virtual PLAYshop program. A larger randomized controlled efficacy trial is recommended.
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    The Physical Activity Regulation Scale (PARS): Development and validity testing
    (Health Psychology, 2023) Rhodes, Ryan E.; Lithopoulos, Alexander
    Objective: Behavioral regulation tactics used to manage actions after the formation of a physical activity (PA) intention are common to many theories, yet comprehensive measures of PA regulation are scant. Purpose: To develop a reliable instrument of PA regulation and test predictive validity and its capacity to mediate the intention-PA relationship. Methods: To achieve a pool of candidate items, we used the behavior change technique taxonomy as a template, followed by a critical literature review of PA regulation measures to extract exemplar items, and then concluded with a Delphi feedback method (N=4). The main study included a sample representative of the Canadian adult population to explore and then confirm the construct and discriminant validity, and internal consistency reliability of the measure using two independent samples (N=683 and N=727). Finally, using a two-week prospective design, the full sample was used to investigate test re-test reliability, and predictive validity of self-reported PA at Time 2. Results: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses resulted in a reliable 14-item, four-factor measure (internal consistencies >.80) of 1) proactive regulation, 2) reactive regulation, 3) social monitoring, and 4) self-monitoring, we named the Physical Activity Regulation Scale (PARS). The PARS factors explained 18% of PA at Time 2, and mediated the relationship between intention and PA. Conclusion: While continued testing is needed, the initial evidence is supportive that the PARS may be a useful PA behavioral regulation measure to include for use within various theoretical models applied to understand PA.
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    Wheelchair rugby sprint force-velocity modeling using inertial measurement units and sport specific parameters: A proof of concept
    (Sensors, 2023) Klimstra, Marc; Geneau, Daniel; Lacriox, Melissa; Jensen, Matt; Greenshields, Joel; Cormier, Patrick; Brodie, Ryan; Commandeur, Drew; Tsai, Ming-Chang
    Background: Para-sports such as wheelchair rugby have seen increased use of inertial measurement units (IMU) to measure wheelchair mobility. The accessibility and accuracy of IMUs have enabled the quantification of many wheelchair metrics and the ability to further advance analyses such as force-velocity (FV) profiling. However, the FV modeling approach has not been refined to include wheelchair specific parameters. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare wheelchair rugby sprint FV profiles, developed from a wheel-mounted IMU, using current mono-exponential modeling techniques against a dynamic resistive force model with wheelchair specific resistance coefficients. Methods: Eighteen athletes from a national wheelchair rugby program performed 2 × 45 m all-out sprints on an indoor hardwood court surface. Results: Velocity modelling displayed high agreeability, with an average RMSE of 0.235 ± 0.07 m/s−1 and r2 of 0.946 ± 0.02. Further, the wheelchair specific resistive force model resulted in greater force and power outcomes, better aligning with previously collected measures. Conclusions: The present study highlights the proof of concept that a wheel-mounted IMU combined with wheelchair-specific FV modelling provided estimates of force and power that better account for the resistive forces encountered by wheelchair rugby athletes.
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    Examining the Canadian 24-hour movement guidelines among adults with intellectual disability: A pilot study
    (International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2023) Coats, John Cooper; Coxon, Matthew; Temple, Viviene A.; Butler, Cara; Stuart-Hill, Lynneth
    The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the extent to which adults with intellectual disability (ID) met the 2020 Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines. Fifteen adults (six females and nine males) participated in this nine-day observational study (age = 20–64 years) in 2021–2022, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary time, and total sleep time were measured with a smartwatch to compare to the guidelines. A diary subjectively tracked physical activity. Of the 15 participants, 11 met the MVPA guidelines (73%), 4 met the sedentary behaviour guidelines (27%), 7 met the sleep guidelines (47%), and only 1 participant met all 3 of the guidelines (7%). There were no differences in physical activity or sleep between weekends and weekdays, or between males and females. Walking, cleaning dishes, and swimming were the most common types of physical activity performed by the participants. The findings of this pilot study indicate the need to improve sleep and reduce sedentary time in adults with ID. As most participants met the MVPA guidelines, few met the sedentary behaviour guidelines, and nearly half met the sleep guidelines, these data also demonstrate how important it is to assess all three aspects of the movement guidelines. All these behaviours have independent health benefits and risks, which interact to influence overall health.
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    A simple and valid method to calculate wheelchair frame rotation using one wheel-mounted IMU
    (Sensors, 2023) Klimstra, Marc; Lacroix, Melissa; Jensen, Matt; Greenshields, Joel; Geneau, Daniel; Cormier, Patrick; Brodie, Ryan; Commandeur, Drew; Tsai, Ming-Chang
    Wheelchair sports have been using Inertial Measurement Units (IMU) to measure mobility metrics during training, testing and competition. Presently, the most suitable solution to calculate wheelchair speed and frame rotation is the 3IMU method as there is uncertainty about the ability of a one wheel-mounted IMU (1IMU) approach to calculate wheelchair frame rotational kinematics. A new method for calculating wheelchair frame rotational kinematics using a single wheel-mounted IMU is presented and compared to a criterion measurement using a wheelchair-frame-mounted IMU. Goodness-of-fit statistics demonstrate very strong linear relationships between wheelchair frame angular velocity calculated from the wheel-mounted IMUs and a wheelchair-frame-mounted IMU. Root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and Bland–Altman analysis show very small differences between the wheelchair frame angular velocity calculated from the wheel-mounted IMUs and the wheelchair-frame-mounted IMU. This study has demonstrated a simple and accurate approach to estimating wheelchair frame rotation using one wheel-mounted IMU during an elite wheelchair athlete agility task. Future research is needed to reexamine and compare wheelchair mobility metrics determined using the 3IMU and 1IMU solutions using this new approach.
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    Family-based physical activity interventions and family functioning: A systematic review
    (Family Process, 2023) Rhodes, Ryan E.; Hollman, Heather; Sui, Wuyou
    Family physical activity (PA) can confer multiple health benefits, yet whether PA interventions affect general family functioning has not been appraised. The purpose of this review was to evaluate studies that have examined the effect of family PA interventions, where child PA was the focus of the intervention, on constructs of family functioning. Literature searches were concluded on January 11, 2022 using seven common databases. Eligible studies were in English, utilized a family PA intervention, and assessed a measure of family functioning as a study outcome. The initial search yielded 8413 hits, which was reduced to 20 independent PA interventions of mixed quality after screening for eligibility criteria. There was mixed evidence for whether family PA interventions affected overall family functioning; however, analyses of subdomains indicated that family cohesion is improved by PA interventions when children are in the early school years (aged 5–12). High-quality studies also showed an impact of family PA interventions on family organization. Targeted interventions at specific family subsystems (e.g., father–son, mother–daughter), characteristics (low-income, clinical populations, girls), and broad multibehavioral interventions may have the most reliable effects. Overall, the findings show that family PA interventions can promote family cohesion and organization, particularly among families with children in the early school years. Higher quality research, employing randomized trial designs and targeting specific intervention and sample characteristics (e.g., different clinical conditions, specific parent–child dyads), is recommended in order to better ascertain the effectiveness of these approaches.
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    Reorganizing after the pandemic: A chance to energize physical activity promotion
    (Current Issues in Sport Science (CISS), 2022) Rhodes, Ryan E.
    In this commentary on “What is needed to promote physical activity? – Current trends and new perspectives in theory, intervention, and implementation” I discuss my support for the many health, social, and economic benefits of moving more and sitting less as detailed by the authors. I discuss my agreement with the challenges of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic, and that while effective promotion initiatives founded on socioecological whole system approaches seem most logical, the role of individual is still essential for downstream uptake of physical activity. Like the authors, I include my support for the testing, development, and assumptions underlying dual-process theories using real time data-capture, in addition to more sophisticated longitudinal dynamic modeling to translate findings into just-in-time intervention approaches. In addition, however, I highlight it is still important for researchers and practitioners to focus on the role of reflective factors, such as building strong intentions to engage in physical activity, and subsequent self-regulation skills to translate these intentions into action. Furthering our understanding on the distinctions between initiation and maintenance of movement behaviors is important to advance theory and practice and the role of apex-system variables such as self- and social identity may hold considerable utility in physical activity science. I suggest that finding meaning in movement behaviors beyond exercise is critical to reorganizing and reenergizing after the pandemic to promote physical activity.
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    Enhancing Physical and Psychosocial Health of Older Adults in Saudi Arabia through Walking: Comparison between Supervised Group-Based and Non-Supervised Individual-Based Walking
    (European Journal of Investigation in Health Psychology and Education, 2023) Karmakar, Palash; Wong, Ming-Yu (Claudia); AlMarzooqi, Mezna A.; Alghamdi, Nouf; Ou, Kailing; Duan, Yanping; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Zhang, Chun-Qing
    Walking is widely recognized as one of the most common and effective forms of physical activity, particularly for older adults. This study examined the comparative effects of two types of walking interventions, including supervised group-based intervention (SGBI) and non-supervised individual-based intervention (NSIBI), on frailty syndrome, cognitive functions or skills, and health-related quality of life among sedentary older Saudi individuals. A 15-week double-blinded, randomized controlled trial (RCT) including three groups (two were intervention groups while the other was the control group) was conducted among older adults who were inactive to examine the effect of different forms of walking interventions on frailty syndrome, cognitive functions, and health-related quality of life. A total of 107 participants, including 65 males and 42 females, were divided into three groups, which include SGBI, NSIBI, and the control group. Frailty syndrome was measured using the physical performance test (PPT), while cognitive function and health-related quality of life were assessed using the Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Short Form 36 (SF 36) health survey questionnaire. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with the pre- and post-tests were performed for within- and between-group differences. while post-test data for the control group participants were absent due to the change in elderly center regulation, and they were excluded from the analysis. Hence, the comparison was stated only between the intervention groups. Both of the intervention groups (SGBI and NSIBI) showed significant within-subject differences in the Physical Function subscale of the health-related quality of life scale only, with F(1,20) = 23.03, p < 0.001, and F(1,18) = 27.22, p < 0.001, respectively. On the other hand, the Physical Performance Test revealed significant [F(2,51) = 9.21, p < 0.001] between-group differences in the post-test based on the baseline values. In addition, the average step count of older adults was increased from 4000 steps per session to around 7000 steps per session in the intervention group. The average heart rate of the NSIBI group did not show a visible change, and the resting heart rate of both groups showed a slightly declining trend throughout the intervention period. The walking intervention significantly increased participants’ physical function, which is a component of health-related quality of life and physical performance (frailty level), along with average daily step counts for older adults in Saudi Arabia. Regular engagement in the recommended level of walking is strongly advisable for Saudi Arabian older adults to maintain their overall quality of life at this stage.
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    COVID-19 Fatigue and Middle School Students’ Engagement and School Aversion: The Mediational Roles of Emotion Regulation and Perceptions of School Climate
    (Youth, 2023) Hood, Moira; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena; Hadwin, Allyson; Rostampour, Ramin
    Learning during the COVID-19 pandemic has included disruption, uncertainty, and additional stress for students. Adverse learning outcomes are a growing concern, especially for vulnerable groups such as middle school students. While COVID-19 research is currently emerging, more research needs to address the specific experiences of middle school students. The current study examined the meditating role of coping (emotion regulation strategies) and perceptions of school climate on the relationship between COVID-19 fatigue and student outcomes (student engagement and school aversion) in a sample of middle school students (N = 301). Findings from parallel mediation path models indicated that COVID-19 fatigue was inversely related to student engagement and positively related to school aversion. School climate provided a moderate to strong mediation, and emotional regulation provided small partial mediation compared to school climate. The findings suggest that utilizing adaptive emotion regulation strategies can help promote student engagement and dampen school aversion in relation to COVID-19 fatigue. Additionally, positive perceptions of school climate can encourage school engagement and reduce school aversion. A deeper explanation of the importance of regulation and the way middle schoolers perceive school rules and support in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic is discussed.
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    Physical activity messaging for action control
    (Routledge, 2018) Rhodes, Ryan E.; Quinlan, Alison
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    No imagining too radical, no action too disruptive
    (Witness: The Canadian Journal of Critical Nursing Discourse, 2021) Bell, Blythe; Van Daalen-Smith, Cheryl
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    Affective response to exercise and affective judgments as predictors of physical activity intention and behavior among new mothers in their first six-months postpartum
    (Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 2023) Rhodes, Ryan E.; Blanchard, Chris M.; Hartson, Kimberly R.; Symons Downs, Danielle; Warburton, Darren E. R.; Beauchamp, Mark R.
    Background: Understanding the predictors of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during early postpartum is important to improve promotion efforts. Affect-related constructs are key predictors of MVPA but have limited research in mothers during the postpartum period. Purpose: To examine two affect-related constructs (affective response to exercise and affective judgments) as predictors of MVPA intention and behavior across three months, among a sample of new mothers. Method: Participants were 105 mothers (M age = 30.64 yrs; SD = 3.93) who completed measures during postpartum at two-months post birth of their first child. The affective response to exercise (assessed at baseline [2-months postpartum] during a submaximal treadmill test), affective judgments and intention (baseline, 6-weeks after baseline), and MVPA (baseline, 6- and 12-weeks after baseline) were assessed via self-report. Results: Path analysis, using ordinary least squares regression, showed that the affective response during exercise was a significant predictor of intention (baseline, 6-weeks), as well as change in intention from baseline to 6-weeks. By contrast, affective judgments predicted intention at 6-weeks, but not at baseline or in the change model. Past MVPA did not moderate these findings, although the affective response during exercise also had a significant indirect effect on MVPA through intention at 6-weeks and 12-weeks. Conclusions: Interventions targeting women’s affective response during exercise may be important during postpartum, perhaps through self-paced physical activity guidance. Affective judgments may not be predictive of MVPA, in part due to unanticipated changes during early postpartum leading to inaccurate expectations of the physical activity experience.
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    Understanding action control of resistance training among adults
    (Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 2022) Rhodes, Ryan E.; Lithopoulos, Alexander
    Background: Regular muscle and bone strengthening activities through resistance training (RT) have been associated with numerous health benefits, particularly as adults age, yet participation is low. Effective promotion is likely founded on an understanding of theory-based correlates, yet almost all RT research has focused on college-aged convenience samples and employed social cognition models, which do not consider the intention-behavior gap. The purpose of this study was to explore RT from the perspective of the multi-process action control framework in a large Canadian adult sample. Method: Canadian adults (N = 1338) completed M-PAC measures of reflective (instrumental attitude, affective attitude, perceived capability and opportunity), regulatory (planning and self-monitoring), and reflexive (habit, identity) processes as well as intention to engage in RT at baseline and RT behavior two-weeks later. Results: Three intention behavior profiles emerged: a) non-intenders who were not active (41.4%), b) unsuccessful intenders who failed to enact their positive intentions (32.9%), and c) successful intenders who engaged in RT (23.5%). A discriminant function analysis (p < .01) showed that instrumental and affective attitude, perceived opportunity and planning/self-monitoring distinguished between all three intention-behavior profiles, while perceived capability predicted the intention-RT profiles of females but not males (p < .01). By comparison, identity was particularly important to younger/middle-aged adults than older females (p < .01), while habit was associated with the intention-RT profiles of older adults but not younger/middle-aged adults (p <.01). Conclusions: The findings support the importance of considering both intention formation and translation in RT. Behavior change techniques aimed at reflective, regulatory, and reflexive processes appear necessary. Additional considerations of targeting specific constructs by age and sex may maximize the potential effectiveness of RT interventions.
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