MEd Projects (Indigenous Education)

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    an tl’i7 xwekwstas kwétsi sníchim tl’a temíxw kwis chet ḵ’ánatsut wa lhtim̓acht wánaxws kwétsi temixw tl’a Sḵwx̱wú7mesh tim̓á ta skwul syétsem
    (2023-10-06) Daniels, Leateeqwhia; Restoule, Dr. Jean-Paul; Daniels, Dr. Belinda (kakiyosew)
    There are multiple layers of Indigenous language revitalization. British Columbia is the home of many unacknowledged Indigenous languages that have been here since time immemorial. Some language programs operate within educational settings, thus, creating a curriculum gap. The objective of this project is to bridge the existing gap of Sḵwx̱ wú7mesh/Squamish curriculum and using sníchim tl’a temíxw (language of the land) to help strengthen language growth. To uphold Sḵwx̱ wú7mesh/Squamish curriculum the project uses wa lhti ̓má (real life experience) of k’xwum kwétsi kwelmexwus (cedar root basketry) to inform the creation of Sḵwx̱ wú7mesh/Squamish curriculum. Our Sḵwx̱ wú7mesh/Squamish knowledge systems are strengthened by gathering, harvesting, and weaving on our homelands. The project weaves together my primary teaching experience and my family upbringing into the project. Learning Sḵwx̱ wú7mesh/Squamish language on the land is transformative and connects me to the land we descend from. Our homelands are veiled against the cityscape, but language and land erase the façade of the city. The project exemplifies decolonizing, indigenizing, culturally responsive teaching practices, our ways of education, land as pedagogy, practice of land-based pedagogy, and language curriculum. This project is an extension of previous Sḵwx̱ wú7mesh/Squamish education work that has come before me. It is important to centralize our Sḵwx̱ wú7mesh/Squamish ways within our educational system. The project documents my curriculum creation process and is an example of Sḵwx̱ wú7mesh/Squamish knowledge as pedagogy. In conclusion, through the experience of learning on the land and using sníchim tl’a temíxw (language of the land) we can create curriculum that targets specific language areas to help develop and improve our Sḵwx̱ wú7mesh/Squamish vernacular usage. Our land is essential in the process of developing curriculum.
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    Ozaaweshiinh Ləkʷəŋən/W̱SÁNEĆ-aking: An Ojibwe Language and Culture Needs Assessment in Victoria B.C.
    (2023-07-12) Craig, Carmen Wiigwaas; Restoule, Dr. Jean-Paul
    This multi-method project explores the language learning needs, wants, and responsibilities of the urban Ojibwe (Anishinaabe, Nishnaabe) community currently living in Ləkʷəŋən and W̱SÁNEĆ territories (Victoria, British Columbia). The purpose of this research is to discover what is needed and wanted in order to rebuild the Ojibwe language (Ojibwemowin, Nishnaabemwin, Anishinaabemowin) relationship for the urban Ojibwe community living on these territories. The study employed a survey, a talking circle, and an interview with a local language practitioner to gather knowledge. In sharing their dibaajimowinan, or stories in circle or through survey or interview, participants identified various responsibilities and strengths of the community, including learning and using some basic phrases/place names in SENĆOŦEN or Ləkʷəŋən languages and that the community provides a strong and important sense of safety, belonging, connection, and affirming of identity for people who are a part of it. Participants also shared their needs and wants for support, people, spaces, and opportunities to gather, as well as their goals related to speaking, understanding, reading, and writing Ojibwemowin. However, they also identified barriers to their language and culture learning, such as living far away from traditional territories, not having access to structured learning, feeling conflicted about learning on this territory, and having emotional and/or confidence issues related to learning. Overall, the findings of this project highlight the importance of investing in safe and supportive spaces, offering diverse and accessible language and culture learning opportunities that address the identified needs and barriers, and supporting the ongoing efforts for urban Ojibwe people to reclaim their language and culture whether near or faraway from homelands.
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    Spiraled Stories: A Method for Teaching Indigenous Languages Using Recorded Audio
    (2023-07-12) Hill, Peter Monck; Czaykowska-Higgins, Ewa Dr.; Lukaniec, Megan Dr.
    This project details a pedagogical method for Indigenous language revitalization (ILR) contexts, created and refined over the years, for Lakota language, using recorded audio files of fluent speakers. Specifically, it discusses how to incorporate the teaching technique of “spiraling” to return to the material over an extended period of time and increasingly familiarize students with the content of the audio, i.e., the narrative of the story in question. The project further explores how the Spiraled Stories Teaching Method (SSTM) is tied into the theory of Indigenous storywork as well as school-based ILR pedagogy, storywork pedagogy, and Ellis and Shintani’s “11 Principles of Instructed Language Learning” (2014). At its core, this method intertwines two strands of ILR—Indigenous language pedagogy and storywork. It contributes to the former by being a teaching method that is ready-made for adaptation and use in the ILR classroom, for which many researchers acknowledge a scarcity of good, research-based pedagogical practices. It contributes to the latter because the foundation of the method is Indigenous stories, told in the target language. In doing this, it represents a synthesis of these two key areas of ILR. Pedagogically, the SSTM is multi-pronged in enabling students to learn vocabulary, grammar, phraseology, and storytelling techniques, all while gaining confidence in their ability to understand Lakota spoken at a fluent level in a relatively short period of time. This paper details the spiraling technique as pedagogical practice, includes appended examples of associated handouts and activities, and thus demonstrates how the whole unit works together as a cohesive whole. In addition, the paper contains a transcript and translation of an actual story that could be used in the classroom, an audio file of the story being told, tips on how to conduct classes when teaching using the method, and a discussion of assessment tools.
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    sqwiilqwul’tul ‘words used when talking to one another’:
    (2022-10-19) Finstad, tisholas (Tracie); Bird, Sonya
    This project explores the connections between the sounds of our land and the consonant sounds of our hul’q’umi’num’ language, a Coast Salish language spoken on Vancouver Island. These connections were made by listening to sounds found on the land in four areas within hul’q’umi’num’ speaking territory including the mountains, the forest, the river and the beach, and relating them to sounds in the language. In each area, speakers of hul’q’umi’num’ were recorded saying an individual consonant that reflected a sound of the land, as well as a corresponding word list. Some speakers also offered descriptions on how the sound is articulated. The sounds of the land, individual consonant sounds, word lists and the descriptions of articulation were woven together to create eight videos (one per sound), designed to support speakers in developing their pronunciation of the many consonant sounds of hul’q’umi’num’ that are not found in English. This land-based pronunciation resource is intended to develop the acquisition of hul’q’umi’num’ consonant sounds by inviting the land to participate as a teacher.
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    ʔəx̌ʔex̌stamas k̓ak̓adəxʷsila λuw̓ən?: Q̓aq̓uƛ̓ən x̌a k̓ak̓adəxʷsila lax̌a Bak̓ʷəmgala
    (2021-12-08) Dobler, Kirsten; Urbanczyk, Su
    Through the lens of narrative inquiry, my project reflects on my experiences as an Indigenous language teacher leading to the creation of early literacy resources that support learning to read in Bak̓ʷəmgala – Kʷak̓ʷala, Lik̓ʷala. I have categorized my learning resources in the following four ways: letter names, letter sounds, sound pairs, and high frequency words. My reflective practice as a Liǧʷiɫdax̌ʷ educator has revealed that these four elements together make up the basics of reading in Bak̓ʷəmgala
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    Da̱nx̱a̱laga̱litła̱n’s ‘We Will Sing in the House’: Reclaiming Domains of the Home Through Song in Kwak̓wala
    (2021-01-04) Everson, Keisha; Lukaniec, Megan; Urbanczyk, Su
    "This project outlines the process of researching about and composing four songs in the Kwakwa̱ ka̱ ’wakw song format for the purposes of Kwak̕wala language revitalization. The Kwakwa̱ ka̱ ’wakw are an Indigenous people from Northern Vancouver Island, some surrounding islands, and the adjacent mainland of British Columbia. The language of the Kwakwa̱ ka̱ ’wakw is Kwak̓ wala, which falls under the Wakashan language family. The project “Da̱ nx̱ a̱ laga̱ litła̱ n’s ‘We Will Sing in the House’: Reclaiming Domains of the Home Through Song in Kwak̓ wala” is about using song in Kwak̕wala and in a culturally-specific Kwakwa̱ ka̱ ’wakw format to aid and enable language learning in the home. The project produced four songs that are composed in Kwak̕wala and structured in traditional Kwakwa̱ ka̱ ’wakw style with targeted language for domains or places and activities that occur in the home. This project was created in hopes of increasing the fluency and number of Kwak̕wala speakers and learners by bringing together these different aspects of language learning, and contributing new and unique research to the field of Indigenous Language Revitalization. One of the goals of this research is to build on current literature about the benefits of using song for language learning, Kwakwa̱ ka̱ ’wakw culture (specifically in terms of song), and the value of home-based and domain-based language acquisition."
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    (2021-01-04) Hemlock, Kanen’tó:kon; Czaykowska-Higgins, Ewa; Thompson, Edōsdi (Judy)
    The body of research has helped to create a newly adapted Mentor-Apprentice Program (MAP) Handbook, for The Haudenosaunee Mentor-Apprentice Language and Leadership Development Program (HMALLDP), which is focused on raising the proficiency of adult second language learners, while also providing them with leadership skills. The handbook developed through this research acts as a first step in the development of a Mentor-Apprentice Leadership Development Program. The methodology and framework in which the research was conducted are from a Haudenosaunee worldview, and draw upon the established means in which leadership was, and continues to be developed by that specific society. Indigenous research methodologies are the foundational approaches in which this work has been rooted in, and thus this paper has relied upon the Indigenous scholars who have paved the way for this type of research. It is through a Haudenosaunee lens that the research compiled here is examined.
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    Using Qʷi·qʷi·diččaq ‘Makah’ in our community: A dialogue approach for adult learners
    (2020-06-22) Pascua, Maria Hita·ʔa·ʔoƛ; Lukaniec, Megan; Urbanczyk, Suzanne
    The Makah Tribe in Neah Bay, Washington, began the Makah Language Program (MLP) in 1978 as Qʷi·qʷi·diččaq 'speaking Makah' (or the 'Makah language'), which is an endangered language. Most of the MLP efforts focus on school age students although there are adult materials available and periodic adult classes offered. The goal of this project was to provide additional support for adult learners by creating Qʷi·qʷi·diččaq dialogues that occur in common places in the community, involve typical activities, and include Makah cultural views and traditional teachings. The Makah concept hi·dasubač or 'traditional preparation,' a Makah perspective of learning and practicing in order to accomplish an objective, was used as the methodology for this project; hi·dasubač involves mental, physical, emotional, and spiritual aspects of preparation, and advice on its application is included at the beginning of each of the 10 dialogues. Besides focusing on local context and activities, including cultural information, the dialogues were designed to sustain back and forth conversation and provide ways to extend the dialogue through word replacement. It is hoped that the dialogue template and design principles created in this project can be helpful in other contexts of Indigenous Language Revitalization, especially those which need additional support for adult language learners.
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    Tahltan Word Formation: Considerations for Creating New Words in Tāłtān
    (2020-06-22) Dennis, Odelia; Saxon, Leslie; Lukaniec, Megan
    The Tāłtān language is a language at risk of becoming a sleeping language. Although language revitalization efforts are helping to reclaim this language, more could be done to create speakers. As languages evolve to contemporary life, developing new words would allow the language to be spoken uninterrupted by the dominant language and would spark the interest of younger generations to learning and speaking their language. This research focusses on the ways in which Tāłtān and other Dene languages have created new words in the past and more recently with consideration to how worldview is expressed in the language. There are steps that need to be taken when carrying out the task of creating new words in the Tāłtān language. Involving first language speakers will help to preserve the Tahltan way of thinking in the language. All language speakers should have a role to play in the creation of words, including those of different stages of language learning, and different dialect of speakers.
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    Saiakwatsirón:ni - We Are Reigniting the Fire: Regeneration of Kanien’kéha Silent Speakers
    (2020-06-22) Elijah, Kahentéhtha Angela; Thompson, Edōsdi (Judy); Black, Tim
    This paper addresses language loss and the effects of becoming silent speakers, people who understand a language but do not speak it. It is a topic that has been neglected and has created a gap in scholarly research. There is a limited amount of knowledge which has contributed to literature in reference to silent speakers. Although, linguists have written about the deterioration in the structure of the language of silent speakers, there is little knowledge regarding the mental, emotional, social and spiritual effects on people who understand their Ancestral language, but do not speak it. For this reason, further research is needed to address the issues of silent speakers. The research project will be conducted using a methodology based in Kanien’kehá:ka worldview, “Kheiatahónhsatats Tsi Ohnaho’tén:shon Rotiká:ratons”, (I will listen to them, the different stories they tell) as they tell the stories from their memories, they will be heard. The study focuses on silent speakers within the three Wolf Clan families in Ahkwesáhsne, one of eight communities of the Kanien’kehá:ka, also known as the people of the Mohawk Nation. It examines common factors which have contributed to the participants becoming silent speakers, identifies shared themes within the framework of a selection of seven wampum strings within the Ka’nikonhrakétskwas: Uplifting of the Minds Condolence Ceremony, and concludes with current mainstream and a culturally-appropriate therapeutic method of healing which can be effective in regenerating speakers of Kanien’kéha within the community of Ahkwesáhsne. This study also brings forth strategies, suggested by silent speakers themselves, that could be developed and promoted to assist silent speakers to become speakers. The goal is to regenerate fluent speakers in Kanien’kéha, currently a threatened language, and in doing so, keeping the Kanien’kehá:ka identity and sense of belonging intact and continuing our connection to culture and history.
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    Developing a Model for an Experiential Grammar Teaching Resource for Hul'q'umi'num' Junior Kindergarten Teachers
    (2020-06-22) Kell, Sarah M.; Jacobs, Peter E.; Rosborough, Patricia C.
    This paper describes a collaborative project to develop six lessons for teaching selected grammatical patterns of Hul'q'umi'num' (Coast Salish) to Junior Kindergarten immersion students using experiential teaching methods. The lessons are intended to serve as a model for future grammar resources to support teachers in a planned primary immersion program. The project followed an Indigenist paradigm using principles of Community-Based Language Research to support a research partnership with staff and Elders at S-hxixnu-tun Lelum Primary School at Stz'uminus First Nation on Vancouver Island, BC. Over a short series of workshops, the research team members worked together to determine ways to model key grammatical concepts to Junior Kindergarten students without teaching them overtly. Although the original intent was to develop one sample unit, the resulting lessons will likely be applicable throughout the primary program. The workshops also supported future immersion teachers to learn more about Hul'q'umi'num' grammar, and about how to develop and implement experiential language lessons.
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    kón dháredi
    (2020-03-26) Lewis, Danita; Restoule, Jean-Paul; Czaykowska-Higgins, Ewa
    Indigenous languages are disappearing at an alarming rate and many face the risk of extinc-tion. In the recent past, Canada implemented language policies and laws aiming to eradicate Indigenous languages and cultures thus putting them at risk of extinction. In 2019, Nation-al Chief Perry Bellegarde spoke to the Assembly of First Nations Special Chiefs Assembly in Ottawa on this subject, “Our languages connect us all to our ceremonies, to our lands, to our waters and to our right to self-determination as Indigenous peoples, we want our chil-dren to grow up with these rich and beautiful languages.” (p.1) Oral tradition has been in place since before the creation of time. Indigenous people in Canada come from this tradi-tion, their language being the primary tool for daily communication and holding within it a connection to the land, ancestors, memory, and identity. Orality is dynamic as it holds liv-ing memories and serves to transmit knowledge and beliefs, as well as maintains historical records and sustains culture and identity. Dënesųłiné language, like every Indigenous lan-guage in Canada, faces extinction. Canadian educators are now doing the complex and emotional work of Language Revitalization. Decolonizing, Indigenizing and reconciling are parts of the process. This project explores the importance of orality for the Dënesųłiné (pronounced as Den-a-sooth-leh-na), of the Athabaskan language family. This project is a unit plan devel-oped with the guidance of elders, knowledge keepers and fluent language speakers of Łuechok Túe. The unit plan serves to bridge the knowledge between a Euro western system and the many ways of knowing with Canada’s Indigenous people, namely the Dënesųłiné. The research was guided by a Dënesųłiné framework supported by community members and fluent Dënesųłiné language speakers. The author is not fluent in Dënesųłiné; however, she shares the same goal of her home community to use education to “create speakers, and to re-establish Denesųłiné as the first language on Cold Lake First Nations.” This paper outlines the process of working collaboratively from a distance with fluent Dënesųłiné lan-guage speakers with the goal of creating a resource that can be used in the public school system to meet the requirements mandated by the BC Ministry of Education with whom the researcher is employed as a public school teacher. The research uses the important teach-ings, ceremony, culture, Dënesųłiné language and worldview obtained through interviews with fluent Dënesųłiné language and culture carriers. This unit plan is intended to be shared as a resource for her own community but also to be shared within the public school district where she is employed so that others may understand the importance of language, culture and traditions while taking into account the impacts of colonization. This fosters understanding and a supportive learning atmosphere built upon encouragement and hu-mour, while recognizing that working on language revitalization is a healing journey.
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    Developing a Model for an Experiential Grammar Teaching Resource for Hul'q'umi'num' Junior Kindergarten Teachers
    (2019-10-01) Kell, Sarah; Jacobs, Peter; Rosborough, Patricia
    This paper describes a collaborative project to develop six lessons for teaching selected grammatical patterns of Hul'q'umi'num' (Coast Salish) to Junior Kindergarten immersion students using experiential teaching methods. The lessons are intended to serve as a model for future grammar resources to support teachers in a planned primary immersion program. The project followed an Indigenist paradigm using principles of Community-Based Language Research to support a research partnership with staff and Elders at S-hxixnu-tun Lelum Primary School at Stz'uminus First Nation on Vancouver Island, BC. Over a short series of workshops, the research team members worked together to determine ways to model key grammatical concepts to Junior Kindergarten students without teaching them overtly. Although the original intent was to develop one sample unit, the resulting lessons will likely be applicable throughout the primary program. The workshops also supported future immersion teachers to learn more about Hul'q'umi'num' grammar, and about how to develop and implement experiential language lessons. The project is an innovative example of building on the considerable existing strengths of S-hxixnu-tun Lelum's current second-language program by adapting previous teaching materials for the Junior Kindergarten immersion context. This paper concludes by discussing next steps towards developing curriculum and resources for the primary immersion program.
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    Awi’nakola: We are One with the Land and Sea
    (2018-10-11) Child, Sara; Rodriguez de France, Carmen
    Over the last four decades, I have witnessed and been involved in a cultural resurgence led by families, artists, scholars, educators, individuals and extended families from our Kwakwaka̱ ’waḵw communities. These individuals have dedicated their lives to challenging the system, searching for knowledge and agency to resist assimilation and repair the cultural genocide caused by colonization. These warriors dedicated their lives to researching and revitalizing our ways of being and language. Steadfast in their pursuit, they are spurred on by what they know in their hearts to be true: Our distinct language feeds our view of the world and our way of being, it is interwoven with culture, is vital to our personal and collective wellness and is integral to who we are as Kwakwaka̱ ’wakw. The Kwakwaka̱ ’wakw leadership concepts of: 1 Maya’xa̱ la x̱ us Ba̱ k̕wine̱ , Mu̱ ’lano’x̱ w, Awi’nakola, Maya’x̱ alap’a, and O’ma̱ n’s ‘Na̱ m’a will be explored through a youth leadership camp. The camp will set the stage for restoring the values, beliefs, traditions and practices, encoded in Kwak’wala, that held us together in wellness through respectful, responsible, and reciprocal relationships. The camp will include an exploration of the United Nations Declaration of Rights for Indigenous People (UNDRIP). This locally designed and delivered Kwakwaka̱ ’wakw leadership camp, coupled with an exploration of the UNDRIP, is intended to create a pathway to resilience, perseverance and wellness for youth and is grounded in my belief, that an exploration of leadership, through the lens of language, is necessary to unearth and restore the worldview encoded in Kwak’wala. I believe the experience will ignite the fire within youth to learn and protect our language, stand up for our Indigenous human rights, and embrace their important roles as our future leaders. G̱ ilakas’la la’aḵus a’ekaḵila gax̱ ano'x̱ w; thank you for taking care of us on the journey that has brought us to this place.
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    Mǫ ht’a Go ehk’ǫ
    (2018-10-09) Mantla, Rosa; Bird, Sonya; Czaykowska-Higgins, Ewa
    Tłı̨chǫ people have lived in the Tłı̨chǫ region for hundreds of years. Gokecho dıı nèk’e nàgı̨ı̨dè gots’ǫ. Since our Ancestor’s time our Forefathers have lived on Tłı̨chǫ Land. Our Elders believed that our land is the foundation for our way of life, our Tłı̨chǫ Yatıı , na owo - Tłı̨chǫ language and culture, and Tłı̨chǫ Worldview. It is said by our Elders, our Tłı̨chǫ history has records of how animals spoke Tłı̨chǫ to connect with the people. It is a land-based language and in existence to this very day. To continue teaching our traditional taboos and beliefs to our children is to preserve and transmit knowledge to the future generations. We use the Tłı̨chǫ language to do this. This project on Tłı̨chǫ puberty rites exemplifies the relationship between language, culture and land: the people are the girls becoming women; they need to be on the land to learn; they learn through the Tłı̨chǫ oral language and through traditional activities connected to the language. The Elders tell us that our language is essential to be taught in the content of passage of rites for the girls, Mǫ ht’a Go ehk’ǫ (I Made Camp Fire). When I went through my puberty rites, I gained so much insights on all aspects of sacred knowledge; it was an overwhelming but incredibly rich experience. Over the years, I have passed on my teachings related to puberty rites. In this paper, I document how I have done this through the school curriculum, and through the Grade 7 puberty camps. In the paper, I start by providing context for my work: I start by situating myself, and then introduce the Tłı̨chǫ worldview, the link between language and health, and the health of language (Section 2). Then I talk about traditional puberty rites of passage, illustrating them through my own story and a short version of my mother’s story (Section 3), and I discuss how they are taught in the schools (Section 4). After that, I document the puberty camps that I have been involved with for many years, through the Dogrib Divisional Board of Education, now the Tłı̨chǫ Community Services Agency (TCSA), including the language used at the camps (Section 5). I end by reflecting on the importance of language in the camps, and providing recommendations for continuing to bring language into the camps (Section 6). Like my colleagues in the educational system, I really want the puberty camps to be taught, including all aspects of Traditional Knowledge of how our people have practised the rites of passage for girls. It’s very important that the girls understand the rites of passage, and are able to practice them and acknowledge that they have to respect these teachings and the Traditional Knowledge, to honour the teachings of the Elders.
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    xwi’xwi’em’: My Hul’q’umi’num’ Storytelling Journey
    (University of Victoria, 2016) Daniels, Deanna (Xway'Waat); Rosborough, Trish
    Indigenous languages are at risk of extinction in Canada, and also at risk are the traditional storytelling ways of our ancestors. Our First Peoples have been using oral transmission to pass on cultural knowledge about our Indigenous ways of life from generation to generation since time immemorial. Storytelling is used to teach our young people about our beliefs, values, history and relationships. This project explores how one researcher’s personal journey utilized a storywork approach to connect to her cultural identity and language by telling four of her personal stories in Hul’q’umi’num’, a Coast Salish language of British Columbia. The stories and their English translations are given in the Appendix. The researcher is not yet a speaker of her language, but she proceeded with the support and guidance of a collaborative team of Quw’utsun’ Elders and language specialists. This report details the step-by-step learning process that a person can undertake to construct stories even if they are not fluent speakers of a language. The researcher learned much about the sounds and structures of her language as well as how new stories are designed. Through this process, the research was able to share teachings, important messages, traditional knowledge and a Quw’utsun’ worldview in her own language. By telling her own stories and making them available to her community in the form of texts and movies, this project makes a contribution to the Hul’q’umi’num’ language revitalization strategy.
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    An Introductory Cree Nīhiyawēwin Course Guide
    (2018-08-31) Burnoff, Laura; McIvor, Onowa; Rosborough, Trish
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    (University of Victoria, 2017) Underwood, G. David (PENÁĆ); Czaykowska-Higgins, Ewa; Bird, Sonya
    This project explores the experiences of adults learning the Indigenous language of SENĆOŦEN, in the WSÁNEĆ (Saanich) language group. It looks at adult language acquisition experiences, and examines the theory and practice of Indigenous language revitalization. The Mentor-Apprenticeship Program (MAP) and the SȾÁSEN TŦE SENĆOŦEN [SENĆOŦEN springboard] Language Apprenticeship Program are examined through an auto-ethnographic lens as a way of documenting a personal learning journey—from language-learning apprentice to language speaker, and finally to language teacher. The metaphor of travelling by canoe is used as a way of reflecting on the SENĆOŦEN language-learning journey, allowing a consideration of the optimal conditions for learning SENĆOŦEN, even as optimal conditions are necessary to travel by canoe on the water. The question that guides this project—SX̱ENI,EṈ YEW̱ ȻNEs TW̱E SENĆOŦEN? [How is it that that I have come to speak SENĆOŦEN?]—is explored through the auto-ethnographic reflection process and tells the story of how SENĆOŦEN was learned and how it is currently being spoken. The story recounts how SENĆOŦEN was learned with the help of the elders of the W̱SÁNEĆ community; it describes the guiding principles and traditional teachings of these elders, and recounts the self-motivating and external motivational factors, including the personal beliefs and practices that enhanced the learning and speaking of SENĆOŦEN. Various language acquisition and language revitalization theories and practices have been examined in the course of this reflection, including sociocultural theory, monitor theory, affective filter and affective language intimacy. Indigenous research methodologies have also been examined in order to align the project with current Indigenous research practices that focus on relationality, and the storyteller as researcher, and take into account Indigenous epistemologies and traditional worldviews that are founded on respect and a holistic sense of interconnectedness.
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    (University of Victoria, 2017) Nicolson, Deanna; Urbanczyk, Suzanne
    This project is about archival reconstruction. It focuses on records pertaining to the Kwakwaka’wakw people of the Pacific Northwest Coast of British Columbia. Specifically, this project focuses on digitizing and converting a collection of ‘Personal Names of the Kwakiutl’ recorded by George Hunt nearly a century ago for anthropologist Franz Boas. The vast amount of information was recorded using an outdated orthography crafted by Boas that can hardly be read nor can it be replicated on a standard computer keyboard today. By first digitizing and then converting this data into a more recently developed and widely accepted writing system this will increase accessibility and comprehensibility for Kwakwa̱ka̱’wakw members. In a sense, this project is also a repatriation project–the return of the almost one hundred year old material from a cross-continental institution. This work can potentially serve as a foundation for indigenous education curriculum in the areas of language and culture as Kwakwa̱ka̱’wakw personal names are embedded with an abundance of cultural information. Each name reveals a rich rendition of Kwakwa̱ka̱'wakw history and genealogy. In addition, these traditional names are constructed in a particular way that combines (oftentimes) several word parts that each carry meaning and when strung together construct a beautifully crafted ‘name’. In all actuality, the name is only the tip of the iceberg of a complex cultural history.
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