Transcriptomic responses to emamectin benzoate in Pacific and Atlantic Canada salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis with differing levels of drug resistance

Date

2015-02

Authors

Sutherland, Ben J. G.
Poley, Jordan D.
Igboeli, Okechukwu O.
Jantzen, Johanna R.
Fast, Mark D.
Koop, Ben F.
Jones, Simon R. M.

Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title

Publisher

Evolutionary Applications

Abstract

Salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis are an ecologically and economically important parasite of wild and farmed salmon. In Scotland, Norway, and Eastern Canada, L. salmonis have developed resistance to emamectin benzoate (EMB), one of the few parasiticides available for salmon lice. Drug resistance mechanisms can be complex, potentially differing among populations and involving multiple genes with additive effects (i.e., polygenic resistance). Indicators of resistance development may enable early detection and countermeasures to avoid the spread of resistance. Here, we collect sensitive Pacific L. salmonis and sensitive and resistant Atlantic L. salmonis from salmon farms, propagate in laboratory (F1), expose to EMB in bioassays, and evaluate either baseline (Atlantic only) or induced transcriptomic differences between populations. In all populations, induced responses were minor and a cellular stress response was not identified. Pacific lice did not upregulate any genes in response to EMB, but downregulated degradative enzymes and transport proteins at 50 ppb EMB. Baseline differences between sensitive and now resistant Atlantic lice were much greater than responses to exposures. All resistant lice overexpressed degradative enzymes, and resistant males, the most resistant group, overexpressed collagenases to the greatest extent. These results indicate an accumulation of baseline expression differences related to resistance.

Description

Keywords

drug resistance, emamectin benzoate, polygenic resistance, salmon aquaculture, sea lice, transcriptomics

Citation

Sutherland, B.J.G., Poley, J.D., Igboeli, O.O., Jantzen, J.R., Fast, M.D., Koop, B.F., & Jones, S.R.M. (2015). Transcriptomic responses to emamectin benzoate in Pacific and Atlantic Canada salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis with differing levels of drug resistance. Evolutionary Applications, 8(2), 133-148.