Regulation and Socio-Emotional Interactions in a Positive and a Negative Group Climate




Bakhtiar, Aishah
Webster, Elizabeth A.
Hadwin, Allyson F.

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Metacognition Learning


Collaboration in an online environment can be a socially and emotionally demanding task. It requires group members to engage in a great deal of regulation, where favourable emotions need to be sustained for the group’s productive functioning. The purpose of this cross-case analysis was to examine the interplay of two groups’ regulatory processes, regulatory modes, and socio-emotional interactions that contribute to or are influenced by emotions and socio-emotional climate perceived in the group. Specifically, this study compared a group of 4 students unanimously reporting a positive climate to a group of 4 students unanimously reporting a negative climate after completing a 90-min online text-based collaborative assignment. By drawing on two data channels (i.e., observed regulatory actions and socio-emotional interactions during collaboration and self-reported data about emotional beliefs and perceptions), four contrasting group features emerged: (a) incoming conditions served as a foundation for creating a positive collaborative experience, (b) regulation of emotions during initial planning, (c) negative emotions served as a constraint for shared adaptation in the face of a challenge, and (d) encouragement and motivational statements served as effective strategies for creating a positive climate. Implications for researching and supporting emotion regulation in collaborative learning are discussed.



Cross-case analysis, Computer-supported collaborative learning, Regulation, Socio-emotional interactions, Emotions


Bakhtiar, A., Webster, E.A. & Hadwin, A.F. (2018). Regulation and socio-emotional interactions in a positive and a negative group climate. Metacognition Learning, 13(1), 57-90. doi: 10.1007/s11409-017-9178-x