Stress and traumatic brain injury: An inherent bi-directional relationship with temporal and synergistic complexities

Date

2023

Authors

Brand, Justin
McDonald, Stuart J.
Gawryluk, Jodie R.
Christie, Brian R.
Shultz, Sandy R.

Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title

Publisher

Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews

Abstract

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stress are prevalent worldwide and can both result in life-altering health problems. While stress often occurs in the absence of TBI, TBI inherently involves some element of stress. Furthermore, because there is pathophysiological overlap between stress and TBI, it is likely that stress influences TBI outcomes. However, there are temporal complexities in this relationship (e.g., when the stress occurs) that have been understudied despite their potential importance. This paper begins by introducing TBI and stress and highlighting some of their possible synergistic mechanisms including inflammation, excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation, and autonomic nervous system dysfunction. We next describe different temporal scenarios involving TBI and stress and review the available literature on this topic. In doing so we find initial evidence that in some contexts stress is a highly influential factor in TBI pathophysiology and recovery, and vice versa. We also identify important knowledge gaps and suggest future research avenues that will increase our understanding of this inherent bidirectional relationship and could one day result in improved patient care.

Description

Keywords

Allostatic overload, Neuroinflammation, Immune response, ANS, HPA-axis microglia, Cytokines, Reactive oxygen species, Glutamate, Glucocorticoids, treatment

Citation

Brand, J., McDonald, S. J., Gawryluk, J. R., Christie, B. R., & Shultz, S. R. (2023). Stress and traumatic brain injury: An inherent bi-directional relationship with temporal and synergistic complexities. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 151, 105242, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2023.105242.