Implementing New Knowledge Environments (INKE)

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    Digital Humanities Futures, Open Social Scholarship, and Engaged Publics
    (Bloomsbury, 2023) Arbuckle, Alyssa; Siemens, Ray; Partnership, INKE
    Are academics alone responsible for the evolution of the digital humanities, and its future? Will the future of digital humanities be shaped by pieces in collections such as this, typically written for other academics? We think not, or at least, not entirely. Rather, we begin with the premise that, while the exact future of the digital humanities is ultimately unknowable, it will be shaped by a number of current and emerging forces—academic, individual, institutional, social, societal, and infrastructural among them. More than an academic thought experiment, the impact and influence of these broader forces draw on the interrelation of theory, praxis, and extra-academic involvement, and necessitate the involvement of all those who have a stock in that future. In this context, we are increasingly invested in the concept of open social scholarship, and how the digital humanities embraces, and may one day even fully embody, such a concept. Originating in partnered consultations among a group representing these broader perspectives, the term open social scholarship refers to academic practice that enables the creation, dissemination, and engagement of open research by specialists and non-specialists in accessible and significant ways.1 Our contribution to the present volume suggests that open social scholarship supports many possible futures for the digital humanities, especially as its foundation incorporates a shift from notions of audience for academic work to publics engaged by and in that work.
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    Open Scholarship in Australia: A Review of Needs, Barriers, and Opportunities
    (Digital Scholarship in the Humanities, 2021-01-17) Arthur, Paul Longley; Hearn, Lydia; Montgomery, Lucy; Craig, Hugh; Arbuckle, Alyssa; Siemens, Ray
    Open scholarship encompasses open access, open data, open source software, open educational resources, and all other forms of openness in the scholarly and research environment, using digital or computational techniques, or both. It can change how knowledge is created, preserved, and shared, and can better connect academics with communities they serve. Yet, the movement toward open scholarship has encountered significant challenges. This article begins by examining the history of open scholarship in Australia. It then reviews the literature to examine key barriers hampering uptake of open scholarship, with emphasis on the humanities. This involves a review of global, institutional, systemic, and financial obstacles, followed by a synthesis of how these barriers are influenced at diverse stakeholder levels: policymakers and peak bodies, publishers, senior university administrators, researchers, librarians, and platform providers. There view illustrates how universities are increasingly hard-pressed to sustain access to publicly funded research as journal, monograph, and open scholarship costs continue to rise. Those in academia voice concerns about the lack of appropriate open scholarship infrastructure and recognition for the adoption of open practices. Limited access to credible research has led, in some cases, to public misunderstanding about legitimacy in online sources. This article, therefore, represents an urgent call for more empirical research around ‘missed opportunities’ to promote open scholarship. Only by better understanding barriers and needs across the university landscape can we address current challenges to open scholarship so research can be presented in usable and understandable ways, with data made more freely available for reuse by the broader public.
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    An “Open Lab?” The Electronic Textual Cultures Lab in the Evolving Digital Humanities Landscape
    (Digital Humanities Quarterly, 2020-09-01) El Khatib, Randa; Arbuckle, Alyssa; Siemens, Lynne; Siemens, Ray; Winter, Caroline; Research Group, ETCL
    As the scholarly landscape evolves into a more “open” plain, so do the shapes of institutions, labs, centres, and other places and spaces of research, including those of the digital humanities (DH). The continuing success of such research largely depends on a commitment to open access and open source philosophies that broaden opportunities for a more efficient, productive, and universal design and use of knowledge. The Electronic Textual Cultures Laboratory (ETCL; is a collaborative centre for digital and open scholarly practices at the University of Victoria, Canada, that engages with these transformations in knowledge creation through its umbrella organization, the Canadian Social Knowledge Institute (C-SKI), that coordinates and supports open social scholarship activities across three major initiatives: the ETCL itself, the Digital Humanities Summer Institute (DHSI;, and the Implementing New Knowledge Environments (INKE; Partnership, including sub-projects associated with each. Open social scholarship is the practice of creating and disseminating public-facing scholarship through accessible means. Working through C-SKI, we seek ways to engage communities more widely with publicly funded humanities scholarship, such as through research creation and dissemination, mentorship, and skills training.
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    Open Social Scholarship in Action
    (Digital Scholarship in the Humanities, 2020) El Khatib, Randa; Arbuckle, Alyssa; Winter, Caroline; Siemens, Raymond G.; ETCL, Electronic Textual Cultures Lab
    Open social scholarship highlights outreach and partnerships by emphasizing community-driven initiatives in an attempt to bridge the gap between the practices of the university and the goals of the community. Over the last few years, the Electronic Textual Cultures Lab at the University of Victoria has introduced a number of initiatives to this end, including the Open Knowledge Program and Open Scholarship Awards. In describing these initiatives, the article engages the larger framework of community engagement and public-facing scholarship. The guiding questions for this article and our work more broadly are: how can we productively put open social scholarship into practice? What type of scholarship is considered public facing? What is the best practice around co-creating knowledge in the humanities with communities that are academic-aligned or non-academic?
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    Futures of the Book
    (Routledge, 2018) Bath, Jon; Arbuckle, Alyssa; Crompton, Constance; Christie, Alex; Siemens, Ray
    In this chapter, we examine the relationship between the printed book and the electronic book, but not as a progression from the old to the new. We begin by looking at how the electronic book has been shaped by understandings of printed books. Electronic text was initially created to encode pre-existing books and continues to carry traces of this materiality forward. As we reveal the depth of this influence, it becomes clear that the e-book, and the infrastructure that supports it, have been built by those with a very narrow understanding of what the “book” is; an Amazon Kindle may be a marvelous tool for reading novels, but it should be remembered that novels themselves are a fairly recent development in the book’s existence. In opposition to this singular definition of the book, we provide an example, the Social Edition of the Devonshire Manuscript, of how a more fulsome understanding of the socially and institutionally contingent forms that books (and authors, editors, and readers) have taken can result in an e-book that respects, reflects upon, and responds to the book in all its diversity.
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    The Initial Impact of the Open Scholarship Policy Observatory
    (KULA: Knowledge Creation, Dissemination, and Preservation Studies, 2019) Milligan, Sarah; Silk, Kimberly; Arbuckle, Alyssa; Siemens, Ray
    In September 2016, members of the Implementing New Knowledge Environments (INKE) Partnership—a broad, diverse group working to advance understanding of, and resolve critical issues in, the production, distribution and widespread engagement of digital scholarship in Canada and beyond—met to discuss future directions and focus areas. One of the resulting initiatives is the Open Scholarship Policy Observatory. The Open Scholarship Policy Observatory tracks national and international policies and policy changes in order to assist INKE partners with developing timely and responsive policies. This paper describes the development of the initiative, and reports on the initial impacts the project has had to date.
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    Modelling Open Social Scholarship Within the INKE Community
    (KULA: Knowledge Creation, Dissemination, and Preservation Studies, 2019) Arbuckle, Alyssa; Maxwell, John
    Given the current state of digital technology, there is a clear opportunity to revamp scholarly communication into a multi-faceted, open system that integrates and takes advantage of the near-ubiquitous global network. In doing so, the values of collaboration, sharing, and transparency inherent to open social scholarship can be integrated into knowledge dissemination methods. The Implementing New Knowledge Environments (INKE) community is currently organized around the idea of open social scholarship, but putting this into practice will involve assessing and revising INKE’s own scholarly communication processes. In this paper, we explore the current state of open access to academic research and ruminate on next steps, beyond open access. We consider the role of collaboration in contemporary academic practice, and the importance of transparency in regards to multiplayer work. Further, we examine the standard scholarly communication model, especially as it pertains to INKE. Finally, we make recommendations and suggest alternatives for transforming our stock scholarly communication models into open social scholarship practices.
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    Open+: Versioning Open Social Scholarship
    (KULA: Knowledge Creation, Dissemination, and Preservation Studies, 2019) Arbuckle, Alyssa
    Advocates of the Open Access (OA) movement have been fighting for free and unfettered access to research output since the early 1990s. Open access is a crucial element of a fair, efficient scholarly communication system where all are able to find, interpret, and use the results of publicly-funded research. Universal open access is more possible now than ever before, thanks to networked technologies and the development of open scholarship policies. But what happens after access to research is provided? In this paper I argue that versioning scholarship across varying modes and formats would move scholarly communication from a straightforward open access system to a more engaging environment for multiple communities.
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    Foundations for On-Campus Open Social Scholarship Activities
    (KULA: Knowledge Creation, Dissemination, and Preservation Studies, 2019) El Khatib, Randa; Arbuckle, Alyssa; Siemens, Ray
    Social knowledge creation, citizen scholarship, interdisciplinary collaborations, and university-community partnerships have become more common and more visible in contemporary academia. The Electronic Textual Cultures Lab (ETCL) currently focuses on how to engage with such transformations in knowledge creation. In this paper we survey the intellectual foundation of social knowledge creation and major initiatives undertaken to pursue and enact this research in the ETCL. “Social Knowledge Creation: Three Annotated Bibliographies” (Arbuckle, Belojevic, Hiebert, Siemens, et al. 2014), and an updated iteration, “An Annotated Bibliography on Social Knowledge Creation,” (Arbuckle, El Hajj, El Khatib, Seatter, Siemens, et al, 2017), explore how academics collaborate to create knowledge, and how social knowledge creation can bridge the real or perceived gap between the academy and the public. This knowledgebase lays the foundation for the “Open Social Scholarship Annotated Bibliography” (El Hajj, El Khatib, Leibel, Seatter, et al. 2019), which draws on research that adopts and propagates social knowledge creation ideals and explores trends such as accessible research development and dissemination. Using these annotated bibliographies as a theoretical foundation for action, the ETCL began test-driving open social scholarship initiatives with the launch of the Open Knowledge Practicum (OKP). The OKP invites members of the community and the university to pursue their own research in the ETCL. Research output is published in open, public venues. Overall, we aim to acknowledge the expanding, social nature of knowledge production, and to detail how the ETCL utilizes in-person interaction and the digital medium to facilitate open social scholarship.
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    Considering The Waste Land for iPad and Weird Fiction as models for the public digital edition
    (Digital Studies / Le champ numérique, 2014) Arbuckle, Alyssa
    What is the best model for public-facing digital literary editions? In 2011, Touch Press released The Waste Land for iPad, an interactive tablet application showcasing T.S. Eliot's notorious 1922 poem The Waste Land. From an academic editorial standpoint, Touch Press's edition has some grave issues. From a popular standpoint, The Waste Land for iPad is successful and well-received. This article asks: How can the tenets of humanities design and scholarly editorial practice be reconciled with the priorities of those who are currently in charge of widespread development and dissemination of cultural content through digital means? By briefly analysing The Waste Land for iPad and contrasting findings to the author's own attempt at developing a digital literary application (Weird Fiction), this article juxtaposes popularity and precision, ethics and economics in the field of cultural production. Quel est le meilleur modèle en ce qui concerne les éditions littéraires numériques destinées au public? En 2011, Touch Press a lancé The Waste Land pour iPad, une application interactive pour tablette présentant le célèbre poème de T.S. Elliot écrit en 1922, The Waste Land (La terre vaine). D’un point de vue éditorial universitaire, l’édition de Touch Press présente certains problèmes sérieux. D’un point de vue populaire, The Waste Land pour iPad a du succès et est bien reçu. Cet article pose la question suivante: Comment réconcilier les principes fondamentaux de la conception et de la pratique éditoriale universitaire des humanités avec les priorités de ceux qui sont actuellement en charge du développement et de la diffusion à grande échelle du contenu culturel par des moyens numériques? En analysant brièvement The Waste Land pour iPad et en contrastant les résultats à la tentative même de l’auteur pour développer une application littéraire numérique, Weird Fiction (fiction fantastique), cet article juxtapose popularité et précision, éthique et économie dans le domaine de la production culturelle.
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    Intersections Between Social Knowledge Creation and Critical Making
    (Scholarly and Research Communication, 2015) Arbuckle, Alyssa; Christie, Alex; INKE; MVP Research Groups; ETCL
    This article outlines the practices of digital scholarly communication (moving research production and dissemination online), critical making (producing theoretical insights by transforming digitized heritage materials), and social knowledge creation (collaborating in online environments to produce shared knowledge products). In addition to exploring these practices and their principles, this article argues for a combination of these activities in order to engender knowledge production chains that connect multiple institutions and communities. Highlighting the relevance of critical making theory for scholarly communication practice, this article provides examples of theoretical research that offer tangible products for expanding and enriching scholarly production.
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    Building A Social Edition of the Devonshire Manuscript
    (Renaissance and Reformation / Renaissance et Réforme, 2014) Crompton, Constance; Powell, Daniel; Arbuckle, Alyssa; Siemens, Ray; Shirley, Maggie; Devonshire Manuscript Editorial Group
    This article describes the context and development of A Social Edition of the Devonshire Manuscript, a collaboratively created Wikibook edition of the sixteenth-century verse miscellany known as the Devonshire Manuscript (BL MS Add. 17,492). This project began in 2001 when Dr. Ray Siemens led a group of researchers in an exploration of how to create a digital edition of the Devonshire Manuscript. Since then, the project has transitioned through many forms and formats, and A Social Edition of the Devonshire Manuscript is the most recent output of these academic experiments. Of note, a print version of A Social Edition of the Devonshire Manuscript is forthcoming from Iter and Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies (MRTS). Cet article retrace le contexte et le développement du projet A Social Edition of the Devonshire Manuscript, consistant en l’édition électronique (Wikibook) en collaboration d’un manuscrit du XVIe siècle de mélanges poétiques connu sous le nom de Devonshire Manuscript (BL MS Add. 17 492). Ce projet a été initié en 2001, lorsque le Dr Ray Siemens a dirigé un groupe de recherche explorant les possibilités de publier une édition numérique du Devonshire Manuscript. Depuis, le projet a pris plusieurs formes, et celui intitulé A Social Edition of the Devonshire Manuscript en est sa forme la plus récente issues des diverses expériences du groupe. Il doit être souligné que A Social Edition of the Devonshire Manuscript, sera bientôt publié en version imprimée par Iter et les Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies (MRTS).
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    A Mandala Browser User Study: Visualizing XML Versions of Shakespeare’s Plays
    (Visible Language, 2009) Gainor, Rhiannon; Sinclair, Stéfan; Ruecker, Stan; Patey, Matt; Gabriele, Sandra
    We report he results of a small user study of a visual XML browsing prototype, called the Mandala browser, where dots representing entire documents or portions of documents are plotted around the periphery of a circle and drawn inward by colored magnets that are assigned values by the user. The result is akin to a Venn diagram that provides a visual representation of the interac­tion between multiple Boolean queries. In this study, eleven participants were given a pre-study interview, then asked to carry out a series of tasks where the dots represented speeches in plays by Shakespeare and finally were de­briefed in a concluding interview. We gained from this study a range of valuable insights into how details of the Mandala browser design could be improved. Participants mentioned, for in­stance, that they would like to retain a connection between results and the visualizations that produced them, that they would like to be able to make notes on result sets, and that they would like to be able to save subsets within results. They also asked for tools that support collaborative searching, as well as for federated searching across collections. The user feedback confirmed the potential value of the Mandala interface and provided guidance for the next iteration of development.
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    Imagining the Architectures of the Book: Textual Scholarship and the Digital Book Arts
    (Textual Cultures, 2012) Galey, Alan; Bath, Jon; Niles, Rebecca; Cunningham, Richard; INKE Team
    Why should designers of digital reading environments study the history of the book? What can the continuities and discontinuities — the successes and failures — of new developments in the book's long history teach us about its possible futures? Questions such as these often go unasked in commercial e-book design and other domains that emphasize technical innovation as their only criterion for evaluating the past. However, new reading environments challenge us to understand the role of material forms in meaning-making, and to situate e-books and digital reading devices within the changing history of books and reading. This article explores that rationale as embodied by the Architectures of the Book (ArchBook) project, an online, open-access, and peer-reviewed collection of richly illustrated essays about specific design features in the history of the book.
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    Meditating on a Mandala in Class: Studying Shakespeare’s Plays with a Visual Exploration Tool for XML Texts
    (Media : Culture : Pedagogy, 2011) Sinclair, Stéfan; Ruecker, Stan; Gabriele, Sandra; Patey, Matt; Gooding, Matt; Vitas, Chris; Bajer, Bartosz
    In this paper we describe the Mandala Browser ( as a born-digital resource for use in the classroom. We provide example classroom exercises for studying the plays of Shakespeare, which provide on the one hand a simple means of examining speeches within a single play (our example uses Romeo and Juliet), and on the other hand a comparison between plays (e.g. all the tragedies). Finally, we provide some further context and resources for enabling what we call digital reading: a subset of text analysis oriented toward searching, browsing and reading text, without requiring more advanced knowledge of statistics and computational methods.
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    The Leisure of Serious Games: A Dialogue
    (Game Studies, 2011) Rockwell, Geoffrey; Kee, Kevin
    This dialogue was performed by Dr. Geoffrey Rockwell and Dr. Kevin Kee as a plenary presentation to the 2009 Interacting with Immersive Worlds Conference at Brock University in St. Catharines, Canada. Kevin introduced Geoffrey as a keynote speaker prepared to present on serious games. Instead of following convention, Geoffrey invited Kevin to engage in a dialogue testing the claim that "games can be educational". Animated by a spirit of Socratic play, they examined serious gaming in the light of the insights of ancient philosophers including Socrates, Plato and Aesop, twentieth-century theorists such as Ludwig Wittgenstein, Bernard Suits, Johan Huizinga, and Roger Callois, and contemporaries such as Espen Aarseth, Bernard Suits and Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi. Their dialogue touched on topics ranging from definitions of play and games, to existing examples of “serious games”, to divisions between games and simulations, and the historical trajectories of comparable media. Their goal was to provide an introduction to these topics, and provoke discussion among their listeners during the conference that followed. In the end, they agreed that the lines of separation between "games" and "learning" may not be as clear as sometimes assumed, and that in game design we may find the seeds of serious play.
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    One Path to co-operative studies: A selection of papers and presentations
    (British Columbia Institute for Co-operative Studies, 2007) MacPherson, Ian
    One can approach the study of co-operatives and the co-operative movement from many disciplinary and experiential directions. The essays in this book reflect the journey of one Canadian activist and researcher. It includes some essays from the beginning of his career as an historian, others that demonstrate how and why he became devoted to the field of Co-operative Studies. Though still believing he is fundamentally an historian, he came to recognize, through involvement as an elected person with several coops and community organizations and through discussions with researchers from other disciplines, that a single-discipline approach to understanding the co-operative movement is woefully inadequate for the academy – and co-operators. He now holds the view that this is a main reason why the movement has been poorly understood and under appreciated. He believes that the complexities and possibilities of the movement can only be fully understood by creating a truly interdisciplinary and international approach. The collection of articles suggest how he reached that conclusion.
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    Codex Ultor: Vers des fondations conceptuelles et théoriques pour de nouvelles recherches sur les livres et les environnements documentaires
    (Mémoires du livre/Studies in Book Culture, 2009) Siemens, Ray; Warwick, Claire; Cunningham, Richard; Dobson, Teresa; Galey, Alan; Ruecker, Stan; Schreibman, Susan; INKE
    Dans cet article, nous présentons les fondations conceptuelles et théoriques des travaux entrepris par le groupe de recherche Implementing New Knowledge Environments (INKE : Mise en oeuvre de nouveaux environnements documentaires), une importante équipe de recherche internationale et interdisciplinaire qui étudie la lecture et les textes, numériques et imprimés. L’équipe INKE est composée de chercheurs et de partenaires directement impliqués dans les domaines liés aux études textuelles, à l’expérience de l’utilisateur, à la conception d’interfaces et la gestion de l’information. Notre but est de contribuer à la mise au point de nouveaux environnements d’informations et de connaissances numériques qui tirent parti des pratiques textuelles antérieures. Dans cet article, nous abordons nos problématiques de recherches, nos méthodes, nos objectifs de recherche, le raisonnement qui sous-tend nos travaux et l’écho que nous espérons qu’ils auront.
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    The Potential of Grant Applications as Team Building Exercises: A Case Study
    (Journal of Research Administration, 2010) Siemens, Lynne
    Faced with increasingly complex and technologically sophisticated research questions, academics are working with others through collaboration and research teams. To be effective, these research teams need to maximize the factors that contribute to success while minimizing the potentially negative impact of associated challenges. One particular challenge, especially with multi-disciplinary teams, relates to the development of a shared understanding of team objectives, tasks, and working relationships. In industry, many teams undergo specific exercises designed to accomplish this end. In academia, the grant application process might serve as a team building exercise. Through the examination of the experience of one academic research team, this paper discusses the potential of a grant application to accomplish this goal. Recommendations for research teams and offices will be offered.
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    A Select Annotated Bibliography: Concerning Game-Design Models for Digital Social Knowledge Creation
    (Mémoires du livre/Studies in Book Culture, 2014) Belojevic, Nina; Arbuckle, Alyssa; Hiebert, Matthew; Siemens, Ray; Wong, Shaun; Christie, Alex; Saklofske, Jon; Sayers, Jentery; Siemens, Derek; ETCL Research Group; INKE Research Group