MEd Projects (Educational Technology)

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    Determinants of Change and Technology Adoption in K-12 Schools
    (2021-05-09) Miller, Emily; Irvine, Dr. Valerie; Paskevicius, Dr. Michael
    This project focuses, from the perspective of a school administrator, on determinants of change and technology adoption in K-12 schools. The focus of this study is identifying factors that cause teachers to change and adopt technology into their practice. Research and literature into theory of change, technology adoption theories, and some psychological constructs are explored. Chapter Three includes a technology plan template which has components and questions to consider based on the researched theories. In order to create effective change within a school, one must be intentional in planning and include components at both a systemic and individual level.
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    Fractals: A Natural Model Technology Supported Learning Outside
    (2021-05-01) Weston, Lawrence Edward; Paskevicius, Michael; Irvine, Valerie
    Fractals are repeating, recursive, diminishing patterns often found in nature. Imagine a tree, starting with the trunk, held strong by its roots that expand into the soil in support of the branches, stems and twigs that extend up and out. As the tree grows in every direction, the branches and roots are increasingly finer, more delicate, fluid and growing versions of the original trunk. New schools, inquiry projects, and this paper share this model of growth. All start with a big idea, extend out in divergent directions and uncover new questions as the inquiry lives and grows. This paper is part of a larger inquiry project looking at developing a land-based middle school at the new school I am fortunate to help co-create. That school is Mill Bay Nature School, on Vancouver Island, in British Columbia, Canada. To support this inquiry, these chapters attempt to summarize a small part of the current literature on pedagogical best-practice and the use of technology in education. The large central trunk themes arising from the literature on current pedagogy include experiential learning, land based learning, place-based learning, place-conscious learning, Indigenous pedagogy and its connection to 21st Century Learning. Other branches of literature reviewed include a view of the accelerated use of technology in education, student and teacher engagement, the dynamic needs of modern learners, and the current focus on twenty-first century skills. The sources are primarily published in the past five years. As much as possible focus on the local context, issues and opportunities specific to the Province of British Columbia, Vancouver Island and ultimately my own school. This collection represents the serendipitous wonders that became the branches, stems and twigs of my inquiry my goal of bringing educational technology and learning outside together.
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    Student Engagement in Synchronous Video Meetings: Exploring Changes in Instruction
    (2021-05-01) Sakiyama, Dale; Irvine, Valerie; Paskevicius, Michael
    One of the challenges educators face in teaching is maintaining student engagement in lessons, activities and assignments. In the classroom, teachers employ a variety of strategies intended to gain and maintain students’ attention and engagement with the material or subject being studied. In a face-to-face environment, a teacher may utilize partner and group work, or check in with students while surveying the class, among other strategies. However, when face-to-face instruction is not possible, educators must navigate an unfamiliar environment from which to instruct and engage. The recent educational climate in a viral pandemic has forced educational institutions to include online synchronous and asynchronous methods of instruction. As a result, instructors have had to rethink ways to gain and maintain student engagement in the new medium. This project explores ways to both adapt teaching strategies that are successful in increasing student engagement in the classroom to synchronous video meetings, as well as investigate new strategies that may only apply or become possible within a synchronous video meeting environment.
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    Inquiry-based collaborative learning: Supporting a paradigm shift towards a technology-integrated shared classroom
    (2021-05-01) Houghton, Deirdre; Soles, Gary; Vogelsang, Andrew; Irvine, Valerie; Paskevicius, Michael
    This project focuses on the areas of Social Studies, Digital Media and Carpentry. The focus is what are the benefits, for both teachers and learners, of employing Cross-Curricular Inquiry on student motivation and engagement. Furthermore, collaborative inquiry was employed to enhance the emerging atmosphere of the facilitation of effective, and differentiated student learning.
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    Teaching Digital Etiquette in the Primary Grades: An Inquiry Approach
    (2021-05-01) Crossley, Heather; Irvine, Valerie; Paskevicius, Michael
    This project focuses on the development of a digital etiquette unit plan for primary grades in an inquiry-based environment. Appropriate digital etiquette includes the ability to converse and communicate with kindness and civility when messaging and working online, as well as supporting other’s positive digital identity. The literature review includes a review of research regarding the effects of cyberbullying on today’s youth and how strong digital citizenship skills, including digital etiquette, are vital when navigating social media and texting platforms. Chapter three includes a detailed yet adaptable unit plan on how one might introduce digital etiquette to a primary class. Although many primary students do not often have the opportunity to text with friends in a messaging application, various video games and online learning platforms with a text box feature are becoming more common. Bridging classroom etiquette with digital etiquette is an important first step to helping all students understand the importance of kindness and civility in the online world.
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    Classroom Engagement with Knowledge Holders-Through Video Conferencing
    (2021-05-01) Hood, Trevor; Irvine, Valerie; Paskevicius, Michael
    Working in a global pandemic environment has been a catalyst in how educators can use technology to support learners. From this context, it created opportunities for bringing in stakeholders who wanted to share their knowledge into the classroom remotely. As such, the question which guided this project is how to improve in-class student engagement with video conferencing by bringing knowledge holders into the classroom remotely. The project setting focuses on grade ten high school students learning the Career and Life Education 10 course from the British Columbia Ministry of Education. Throughout the project Indigenous ways of learning are also explored to improve social engagement and social presence.
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    Designing Effective Online Orientation Programs for First-Year University Students
    (2021-05-01) Crozier, Nicole; Paskevicius, Michael; Irvine, Valerie
    While asynchronous, self-paced online orientation programs are not brand new in the field of orientation, transition and retention, COVID-19 forced many institutions to rapidly create a program for the first time to help welcome fall 2020 students. Using the community of inquiry model as a framework, this project explores the research related to orientation and online learning in an effort to identify the principles, practices and processes that can help a student affairs professional design an effective and engaging asynchronous online orientation program, or enhance an existing program. This research is presented through a series of blog posts on the website
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    Pandemic Restrictions and the Live Audience-Performer Relationship
    (2021-05-01) Schwarz, René; Paskevicius, Michael; Irvine, Valerie
    The most distinguishing feature of performing arts courses is the culminating presence of an audience. Although direct research about how audiences play a teaching role in performing arts courses and in performing arts in general is scant, there is evidence describing and showing relational aspects between performer and audience in various environments. In an educational context, I propose calling this relationship the Audience-Performer Feedback Loop (APFL). Using this as a pedagogical basis and being faced with Health Authority restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic, this project provides technologies and strategic solutions to mitigate and maintain the role in which audiences teach performing arts students synchronously. This paper includes technology tutorials for inexperienced teachers and producers to bring live, at-home, synchronous audiences into their theatres under the watchful eyes of performers who thrive on learning from their audiences in real time. More research is needed to prove how the audience plays a teaching role as a distinguishing feature of performing arts education. Future policies should make direct reference to APFLs in performing arts curricula and be accompanied by strategies and techniques for understanding, identifying, learning, and assessing how APFLs shape a performance and have direct influence on the development and skill of performing arts students.
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    Digital Literacy for Kindergarten
    (2021-05-01) Westwood, Tracey; Irvine, Valerie; Paskevicius, Michael
    Digital technology is interwoven into many aspects of our lives. In British Columbia (B.C.), there is no escaping the necessity for teaching children how to use Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) safely and responsibly. For many early childhood educators, the question of whether digital literacy education truly needs to begin in kindergarten persists. The purpose of this paper is to examine this question through a review of the relevant literature. The review seeks to find the why and the how of incorporating ICT into early learning. Some of the research reveals a resistance to using ICT with children, citing the expense of purchasing and maintaining technology, and the negative effects of screens on children’s health and social growth. Other research acknowledges that problems exist but can be offset by the manner in which educators use ICT. Technology used to enhance learning in a thoughtful and appropriate way can have many cognitive, social, and physical benefits for children. The research also addresses the question of why digital literacy education should begin early as there are already vast differences between children’s digital skills, beliefs, and habits even before they enter school. Some of the studies in this review find that educators are in need of professional development opportunities that allow them to learn how to teach the digital skills learners need to make ICT use a positive addition to the curriculum. As a result of this review, this project was created to include an educator’s guide for introducing digital literacy to kindergarten students. It is grounded in B.C.’s curriculum and B.C.’s Digital Literacy Framework (B.C. Ministry of Education, n.d.). It is a simple, scripted guide that any educator should be able to apply regardless of their own skill level as they work toward incorporating ICT into their own practice.
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    Applying Universal Design for Learning and the BC Digital Literacy Framework to Science Inquiry Projects
    (2021-05-01) Dyck, Heidi; Irvine, Valerie; Paskevicius, Michael
    Using science inquiry projects as the vehicle, teachers can provide a personalized learning experience that is inclusive to all learners. Technology, which is integral to teaching and learning in today’s classrooms, can contribute to personalized learning and presents an opportunity to help develop digital literacies skills. In British Columbia (B.C.), teachers are asked to integrate technology with little training or supporting curriculum, which means that digital literacy skills are not consistent among educators or students. With the help of existing frameworks, educators can design lessons that meet the needs of all learners while also teaching important digital literacy skills. The goal of this project is to provide a sample lesson plan for high school science inquiry projects that identifies relevant digital literacy skills, makes suggestions on how to facilitate the development of those skills, and promotes effective uses of student technology for personalized learning by implementing Universal Design for Learning (UDL). Research literature on student technology use inside and outside of the class will be reviewed, as will recent research on the integration of technology to enhance or assist collaboration, inquiry, and personalized learning. The literature review will conclude with a review of research regarding two frameworks that will be implemented to integrate technology in B.C. high school science inquiry projects: the BC Digital Literacy Framework and UDL. By reflecting on and implementing these frameworks, educators may be better prepared to utilize technology in science inquiry projects to achieve more personalized learning. For this project, I will be using the BC Digital Literacy Framework and UDL in order to show how technology can be intentionally and effectively integrated into B.C. senior science classes to teach digital literacy skills and enhance personalization during inquiry projects.
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    Designing an Online Mathematics Resource
    (2021-05-01) Tradewell, Cheryl; Paskevicius, Michael; Irvine, Valerie; Thom, Jennifer
    Students are much more mobile than mathematics curricula allow. A motivated student, when changing schools or even while attending a British Columbia (BC) school, could use a well-planned online mathematics resource to prepare themselves for a course placement evaluation that suits their university plans. An effective online resource for BC would include references to not only the specific curriculum skills, but also the BC curriculum big ideas, the core competencies, and the curricular competencies (BC’s Course Curriculum, n.d.). It would incorporate Indigenous ways of knowing and be focused on inquiry-based learning and authentic real-life applications of knowledge. A constructivist approach including some persuasive pedagogy would be suitable for a static resource. Videos, quizzing apps and tasks, and real data and/or articles using math are readily available. Although there are many online resources accessible, high school students need guidance on what concepts and skills they need to learn while ensuring their privacy is not compromised as it could be by many of the online resources hosted in areas of the world which do not have the strict laws BC has. An asynchronous self-directed resource requires automated feedback, motivational elements such as gamification, and the opportunity for self-regulation and exploration of self-chosen topics of interest. Self-assessment and the development of a portfolio of work to show evidence of learning will be used instead of assigning a numerical percentage or level to the work completed.
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    Incorporating Reflective Practice as a Means of Improving Student Self-Regulated Learning in a Digital Learning Environment
    (2021-05-01) Storie, Benjamin; Irvine, Valerie; Paskevicius, Michael
    Available research has shown that digital learning environments, in which students take active responsibility for controlling aspects of technology-infused learning, are often underutilized as many students lack the appropriate cognitive and metacognitive strategies - or self-regulated learning (SRL) skills. Providing SRL support in digital learning positively affects student learning (Johnson & Davies, 2014), with metacognition appearing to play the central role in SRL development (Winne, 2014). In addition, there seems to be agreement that reflection is a process by which one acts metacognitively (OECD, 2019), with use of reflective prompts being a common support to provoke metacognition in the literature. While the general research into reflection is mixed (Lew & Schmidt, 2011), more recent research on the use of reflective prompts as a support points to a positive influence on academic performance in digital learning (van Alten et al, 2020). This project details the research of reflection as a specific strategy to develop student SRL skill, culminating in a practical, research-backed book of the theory, strategies, and guidelines to help educators incorporate reflective training into digital learning environments to develop SRL skill in students.
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    Game-Based and Gamified learning within the Elementary classroom
    (2021-05-01) Faune, Nicholas; Paskevicius, Michael; Irvine, Valerie
    Within elementary classrooms educators still struggle to determine the best way to differentiate instruction and provide student-centered approaches to learning. Gamification and game-based learning are ways in which students can be engaged with various types of subjects and content. Education is moving towards having students learn a variety of skills such as collaboration, inquiry, and self-regulation. However, many educators continue to teach with whole group instruction where every student is given the same task. Gamification and game-based learning allow students to be given a low stress, individualized game to practice their skill. Educators are able to adapt their instruction to whole group games, small group games, or partner games. Through the use of these strategies the educator can target lagging skills such as self-regulation in regards to winning or losing or even how to work with a partner. They are also target content skills such as mental math strategies, spelling, and science concepts without rote memorization and regurgitation of information.
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    Facilitating Online Learning with the 5R's: Embedding Indigenous Pedagogy into the Online Space
    (2021-05-01) Lake, Joanna; Atkins, Hayley; Irvine, Valerie; Paskevicius, Michael
    This project is a collection of resources for educators and instructors within the K-12 and post-secondary systems to support the adoption of Indigenous-created frameworks in online learning environments. The discovery phase in chapter one outlines our exploration of merging two seemingly disconnected perspectives and how our own life experiences and educational background gave rise to this project. The literature review in chapter two uncovers the concepts of Indigenous Knowledge and educational technology and creates connections between the two fields, while identifying gaps in the research and the work that needs to be done. The 5R’s of Indigenous pedagogy are relationship, respect, relevance, responsibility, and reciprocity. These 5R’s serve as important reminders for course designers in K-12 and post-secondary educators and benefit all learners. Our resources and reflections address how the 5R’s can be used as best practice to enrich online teaching platforms and remote learning. The positive effect of reciprocal communication, relationship building, and embracing Indigenous-created frameworks in online learning environments extends out into the community and beyond.
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    Integrating 3D Design and Printing with Core Subjects: A Collection of Resources and Tutorials
    (2021-05-01) Howlett, Clayton F; Paskevicius, Michael; Irvine, Valerie
    This project examined the best advantages and considerations in integrating 3D design and printing content into generalist educator practices. Previous literature demonstrated that 3D design and print in education could result in beneficial learning for students, but obstacles existed in how to train educators in using the technology, as well as how to seamlessly integrate the technology with cotemporary curriculum delivery. This project offered a resource of various units which educators could teach to engage in 3D design and printing with their students without sacrificing the learning of traditional core subjects and proposed a shift from teaching 3D design and print to students as a stand-alone topic to using 3D design and printing as a supplementary tool to be used to weave curriculum. The resource is published as a webpage, found at
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    Facilitating Online Learning with the 5R’s: Embedding Indigenous Pedagogy into the Online Space
    (2021-05-01) Atkins, Hayley; Lake, Joanna; Paskevicius, Michael; Irvine, Valerie
    This project is a collection of resources for educators and instructors within the K-12 and post-secondary systems to support the adoption of Indigenous-created frameworks in online learning environments. The discovery phase in chapter one outlines our exploration of merging two seemingly disconnected perspectives and how our own life experiences and educational background gave rise to this project. The literature review in chapter two uncovers the concepts of Indigenous Knowledge and educational technology and creates connections between the two fields, while identifying gaps in the research and the work that needs to be done. The 5R’s of Indigenous pedagogy are relationship, respect, relevance, responsibility, and reciprocity. These 5R’s serve as important reminders for course designers in K-12 and post-secondary educators and benefit all learners. Our resources and reflections address how the 5R’s can be used as best practice to enrich online teaching platforms and remote learning. The positive effect of reciprocal communication, relationship building, and embracing Indigenous-created frameworks in online learning environments extends out into the community and beyond.
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    Teaching to Engage Asynchronous Online Learners
    (2021-04-30) Logan-Goyette, Rhyanon; Huston, Leanne; Smith, Rochelle; Chien, Jerry; Irvine, Valerie; Paskevicius, Michael
    Consistently, teachers and researchers have questioned how to engage students who are working in asynchronous online environments. Within our context, we noticed a similar trend: student disengagement in asynchronous online learning activities. The purpose of this project is to identify factors that influence learner engagement in online learning environments, and to identify strategies that engage students in asynchronous online learning. The literature review presents our theoretical framework, which is based on social constructivist perspectives. This is followed by a discussion of blended learning as a modality. Subsequently, we focus on learning design, specifically exploring learning strategies that promote active learning. The final section of our literature review examines teacher presence within collaborative learning environments. Designing engaging online environments is not a simple matter of digitizing existing content and placing it online. Deliberate planning and implementation of curriculum requires professional development around appropriate pedagogy for online environments. The purpose of our project is to provide support to teachers in evolving online/blended learning environments. We have created a resource package which includes documents and videos to outline strategies to engage students in asynchronous online learning environments. Our hope is that educators new to teaching online will be able to implement a variety of activities that lead to increased student engagement.
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    Implementing Indigenous Education with Technology Education in British Columbia
    (2021-04-29) O'Shea, Jeremy; Irvine, Valerie; Paskevicius, Michael
    This project begins by outlining why Indigenous education and technology education need to be more closely connected. It begins by exploring a framework which explains the connections between the First People’s Principles of Learning and social constructivism theory. Indigenous education is explored touching on important topics, such as residential school history, reconciliation, racism, and decolonization. This topic leads into exploring Indigenous education, discussing why it is important and the challenges faced by educators when implementing it. The following section explores technology education by defining technology and technological interaction. These topics all come together to explore the intersections between Indigenous education with technology education. It then looks at how technology education can be viewed through a holistic lens by incorporating the self, family, community, land, spirits, and ancestors. Further, it explores generational roles and responsibilities and sacred knowledge and its connections to the classroom/shop. The projects main focus is the creation of a website where technology education teachers in BC (and elsewhere) can go to find resources and classroom approaches with an Indigenous education focus which can be readily implemented for a technology education shop/classroom. Further, the website offers a template to follow so that educators can also submit their own lessons or projects to be shared with others. The focus is to help technology teachers address the large void often present in the technology education curriculum regarding Indigenous ways of knowing, being, and doing.
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    Parent Engagement: Impacts, Influences, and Resources
    (2021-04-29) Gorman, Sean; Paskevicius, Michael; Irvine, Valerie
    This project focuses on the impacts and factors that influence parent engagement in a student’s education. There were three guiding questions for this project: (1) What are the impacts of parental involvement on student achievement? (2) What are the factors that determine parent engagement in a child’s education? (3) How do different modes of communication impact parent engagement? These questions are explored using current research and literature in the area of parent engagement. Chapter Three includes resources that educators can use to promote parent engagement in their classrooms and provide opportunities to create positive and meaningful relationships with parents and students in their learning communities. Understanding parent engagement in regard to a child’s education is very complex and varied. However, if educators enlighten themselves to the underlying benefits, they can take steps to increase parent involvement in their own classroom and create positive change.
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