Theses (French)

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    Autrices et actrices de la Comédie-Française dans la presse périodique (1680-1793) : regards sur la vie professionnelle des femmes de lettres et de scène
    (2022-09-01) Cartwright, Sally; Harvey, Sara
    Cette thèse examine la condition professionnelle des autrices dramatiques et des actrices actives à la Comédie-Française entre 1680 et 1793 à travers le portrait qui en est dressé par la presse périodique littéraire. Les stratégies discursives employées dans le Mercure de France, la Correspondance littéraire, l’Année littéraire et l’Observateur des spectacles servent à marginaliser ou à professionnaliser les autrices, et établissent progressivement les critères du vedettariat théâtral, phénomène émergent au sein duquel figurent au premier rang les actrices, paradoxalement critiquées et célébrées par la mise en scène de leur corps. L’analyse de la réception immédiate de ces femmes de théâtre révèle certains défis communs à toutes les femmes du XVIIIe siècle, mais en éclairent d’autres défis spécifiques à leur profession. En outre, l’étude des parcours singuliers de ces autrices et actrices permet de mieux comprendre le traitement qui leur a été accordé par l’histoire théâtrale, telle qu’elle s’est écrite de la fin du XVIIe siècle jusqu’à aujourd’hui. This thesis examines the professional status of female playwrights and actresses active at the Comédie-Française between 1680 and 1793 through their representations in the literary periodical press. The discursive strategies employed in the Mercure de France, the Correspondance littéraire, the Année littéraire, and the Observateur des spectacles both marginalize and professionalize female authors, while establishing the criteria of theatrical celebrity, an emerging concept centered on actresses, who are simultaneously criticized and celebrated for displaying their bodies on stage. Initial reactions to these figures in literary journals reveal challenges common to all women in the 18th century, as well as obstacles specific to their profession. The unique experiences of these authors and actresses allows for a greater understanding of how their legacies have been retained in the development of theatrical history to this day.
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    « C’est pas about toi, c’est about moi » : l’acadjonne, le rap et l’intertextualité dans la construction identitaire du rappeur acadien Jacobus
    (2021-08-31) Ziminova, Olga; Landry, Pierre-Luc; Léger, Catherine
    This thesis analyzes elements which contribute to the construction of the artistic identity of the Acadian rap artist Jacobus. Nowadays, many artists perform on the local and international stages from musical, social or linguistic margins. Their success is due to the democratization of production and music broadcasting tools. As this phenomenon becomes more and more common and popular, “marginal” artists and their communities blur the lines between the mainstream and the underground, by the means of performing in their vernacular and promoting these authentic language practices. Jacobus sings in Acadjonne, a variety of Acadian French spoken in la Baie Sainte-Marie, Nova Scotia. By singing in his vernacular, consciously or not, he claims his Acadian identity, as other artists do so with Chiac, another variety of Acadian French (for example, Lisa LeBlanc and Les Hay Babies). Jacobus, as other artists, claims and proclaims his Acadian identity while promoting his vernacular, which has provoked controversial discussions in the media. Through his songs, the artist destroys the stereotypes of rap music. At the same time, he transgresses the linguistics norms by choosing the linguistic minority over the proper, standard French. In this thesis, I analyze the songs from Jacobus’ two solo albums and various aspects of his songs that contribute to the construction of a “marginalized” and authentic artistic identity. This research shows that the artist’s linguistic practices and the fact that he brings the Acadjonne variety on the Québécois, Canadian or even global stages, contribute to the construction of his authentic identity, but also to the spreading of local varieties of French language, which goes against the linguistic imperialism of the ideology of the standard. This linguistic behaviour enhances the actual societal conversation about inclusion and diversity in Canada.
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    Harry Potter et les mots fantastiques : comparaison des néologismes du septième tome chez Rowling et son traducteur français
    (2020-09-30) Justice, Sandra; Hérique, Emmanuel
    This thesis examines the French translation of the 224 neologisms in Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, the seventh book in J.K. Rowling’s fantasy series. By analyzing the original neologisms and their French equivalents, this research compares the word formation processes used by both the author and the translator, Jean-François Ménard. Additionally, to categorize Ménard’s translation techniques, this study adapts a framework designed by Jacqueline Henry to classify translations of word play. While Ménard uses the same types of word formation as Rowling to create his lexicon, this study reveals that he often chooses a different neological process or distinct lexemes to recreate the effect of the original neologism. To achieve this, Ménard relies on his own creativity and embraces the norms of the French language to give his audience a reading experience comparable to that offered to the readers of the original text.
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    Un réseau de variables : une analyse sociocritique et ergonomique de l’usage de Twitter pour l’acquisition du français
    (2020-08-20) Lightbourn, Ryleigh; Caws, Catherine
    This thesis offers a sociocritical (Collin, Guichon et Ntébutsé, 2015) and ergonomic (Bertin, 2015; Caws & Hamel, 2016; Rabardel, 1995) analysis of an online language learning activity using Twitter, in order to better understand the complex network of variables influencing the success or failure this digital platform in an educational context. Since the creation of Twitter in 2006, researchers in technology-mediated education have been re-purposing the platform for language learning in order to understand its impact on the learner experience (Hattem & Lomicka, 2016). Most studies investigate the benefits of using Twitter as a way to expose students to real-life social interaction (Reinhardt, 2019); they suggest that this social network motivates students (Albadi, 2016), providing the opportunity for language contextualisation (Antenos-Conforti, 2009), digital literacy development and learner autonomy (Leis, 2014). However, in doing so, many of these studies rely on a deterministic approach, assuming that Twitter has inherent educational potential that can be equally accessed by all students when it is asked of them (Collin et al.). Instead, this thesis deconstructs a network of factors and perceptions acting on a student’s ability and willingness to use Twitter to learn French. In particular, this thesis focuses on the participation and the experience of 10 first-year university French students that were invited to publish tweets and to interact with their peers on Twitter over a period of one semester (12 weeks). Drawing from direct observations, interviews and survey data, the results of my mixed-method case study indicate a possible correlation between learner beliefs, participation, and experience, thus highlighting the importance of designing digital learning activities around the diverse needs and perspectives of learners, rather than the expected outcomes that Twitter can offer.
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    « La violence des hommes me fait horreur » : la représentation de la tuerie de l’École polytechnique dans le théâtre canadien
    (2020-05-04) Fraser, Pamela; Harvey, Sara; Landry, Pierre-Luc
    This thesis examines the representation of the Polytechnique massacre in Canadian theatre. Utilizing a corpus of four Canadian plays, this study analyzes how trauma, feminism and commemoration intertwine in theatrical representations of this event. The findings demonstrate that the ways in which we represent the Polytechnique massacre are not neutral. They underscore our understandings and our beliefs relative to this event. In particular, this study demonstrates that in these plays, male characters talk more often and for longer than female characters. In addition, it analyzes how the recurrent topic of the “crisis of masculinity” is portrayed within this corpus. This study aims to participate in the constant reinterpretation of history, in order to question the narratives that have been passed down to us about the Polytechnique Massacre.
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    Les usages et leurs propriétés distinctives de whatever comme marqueur d’approximation en chiac
    (2019-09-27) Jackman, Francesca; Léger, Catherine
    This study examines the functions of the borrowed discourse marker (DM) whatever in Chiac, an Acadian French dialect spoken in the southeastern region of New Brunswick (Canada). Analyzing data from two relatively homogenous corpora, a detailed description of the properties of whatever in its most frequent role, that of an approximation marker, is provided. In this role, it can signal that the speaker is unable to recall a particular word or detail relating to previous content or mark indifference towards the accuracy of the statement. When whatever marks a forgotten element, it is often preceded or followed by a sign of hesitation or is followed by a reformulation which clarifies what the speaker intended to say. This contrasts with the use of whatever to mark imprecision. This research uses contextual clues to differentiate various usages of whatever, and as such, it offers a methodology for the analysis of the polyvalent DM whatever.
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    Les lieux courtois du "Chemin de longue étude" : étude des manuscrits produits par Christine de Pizan
    (2016-09-22) Williamson, Dawn; Cazes, Hélène; Higgins, Iain
    Sept manuscrits du Chemin de longue étude produits par Christine de Pizan, poète et productrice de manuscrits, nous donnent un texte standardisé et des images variées. Une étude de la place et de la nature de ces miniatures offre une compréhension de leurs rôles dans un œuvre du genre de songe. Par le moyen d’un examen systématique, nous cherchons la fonction et la signification de ces miniatures représentant des lieux courtois. Comprenant les miniatures de présentation, une image des Influences et Destins et celles de la Cour de Raison céleste, cet ensemble est rempli d’éléments symboliques. Dans cette thèse, nous cherchons la signification de ces éléments, soit héraldiques soit personnels, et des idées de l’auteur transmises par les deux supports, l’écrit et le visuel. Leur réception dépend, en partie, d’une connaissance de leur contexte historique, et les six derniers siècles peuvent limiter la compréhension actuelle des intentions de Christine. Seven manuscripts of the poem Le Chemin de Longue Étude, written and produced by Christine de Pizan, provide a combination of standardized text and varied imagery. Within this corpus, miniatures relating to courtly settings are systematically examined to determine their function and their significance. A study of the placement and nature of miniatures allows an understanding of their roles in a work of the dream-vision genre. Presentation miniatures are examined, as well as images relating to the Influences and Destinies and to the celestial Court of Reason. These miniatures are rich in representational elements including heraldic and personal symbols, and this thesis examines possible meanings intended for Christine’s audience through both written and visual media. Comprehension is gained, in part, by understanding the historical context of the production of the manuscripts, and the intervening six centuries may limit a full understanding to current readers and viewers.
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    Entre fierté et mépris : le rapport ambivalent à l'égard du chiac dans "Pour sûr" de France Daigle
    (2016-07-28) Trerice, Spencer; Léger, Catherine
    France Daigle’s Governor General’s Award winning novel Pour sûr, published in 2011, depicts the daily life of Acadians in Moncton. In this study, I examine the attitudes and perceptions the characters of the novel have towards their variety of Acadian French, called Chiac. The characters often regard their vernacular as illegitimate, particularly when compared to the linguistic norm (Standard French) and other varieties of French considered as “good French”, but also, depending on the context, demonstrate feelings of pride. Thus, in the novel, Chiac is deemed both an inferior variety of French and a marker of identity. Many sociolinguistic studies have revealed that native speakers of Chiac experience a sentiment of ambivalence towards their variety. In this respect, the novel mirrors the Monctonian sociolinguistic reality.
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    Tracing noise: writing in-between sound
    (2016-01-15) Renaud, Mitch; Fromet de Rosnay, Emile; Butterfield, Christopher
    Noise is noisy. Its multiple definitions cover one another in such a way as to generate what they seek to describe. My thesis tracks the ways in which noise can be understood historically and theoretically. I begin with the Skandalkonzert that took place in Vienna in 1913. I then extend this historical example into a theoretical reading of the noise of Derrida’s Of Grammatology, arguing that sound and noise are the unheard of his text, and that Derrida’s thought allows us to hear sound studies differently. Writing on sound must listen to the noise of the motion of différance, acknowledge the failings, fading, and flailings of sonic discourse, and so keep in play the aporias that constitute the field of sound itself.
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    Prince des Ténèbres, Porteur de lumière : Une exploration des représentations du Diable en tant qu'ange déchu en France au XIXe siècle
    (2015-08-28) Walker, Emily; Fromet de Rosnay, Emile
    In this study, I explore four representations of the Devil as a fallen angel in nineteenth century France in order to better understand the way in which the artists at this time used the symbol of the Devil to express their viewpoints on the various social, political and cultural changes in France. In the first chapter, I provide a survey of the artistic development of the Devil, from his angelic roots in the Old Testament to his near disappearance during the Enlightenment. I examine the semantic difficulties when discussing the Devil, as well as the current literature on his philosophical, theological and cultural significance. The second chapter is dedicated to an in-depth analysis of the four works in which I situate the image within the artist’s larger body of work and then examine the physical representation of the Devil, the landscape in which he is found and the transitory moment of the fall depicted. In the third chapter I provide a historical context for these representations and demonstrate the way in which they reflect the political and cultural agitation in France at the time due to the multiple revolutions, changes in governing structure and advances in science and technology. Through this exploration of these four representations, I propose that the Devil provides unique insight as to the ongoing artistic conceptualisation and perceptions of the state of humanity in an increasingly modern world.
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    "My teacher contributes to my hatred of French": Une étude sur la démotivation ressentie par les apprenants de sexe masculin inscrits au programme de français de base
    (2015-07-30) Trerice, Dylan; Caws, Catherine
    While much of the literature in the field of second language (L2) motivational variance has focused on macro-level or societal variables to account for males’ disinterest to learn French, very few studies consider micro-level factors, that is, those within the language learning classroom. To fill this gap in the literature, this exploratory and descriptive study examines, from both the perspective of male Core French learners and Core French teachers, possible pedagogical elements that boys perceive as contributing factors to their demotivation to learn French. A mixed method design was employed and data were collected from a sample of 75 male Core French students and six Core French teachers on southern Vancouver Island. The quantitative data were collected through the use of modified questionnaires, while the qualitative data were gathered using focus group interviews. There are three major findings in the current study. First, male Core French learners reported being disinterested in the topics of study used in the Core French classroom and demotivated by the Core French textbook. Second, male Core French learners criticized the overdependence of written modality exercises implemented in the language classroom, suggesting that the repetitive nature of the written exercises discourages them to learn French. Third, male Core French learners were shown to strongly disfavour the teacher-centered approach most often described by learners. They reported that a more student-centered approach, which incorporated games and a significant increase in speaking and interactive activities, might encourage them to be more motivated to learn French. Based on these findings, implications and future research directions are discussed.
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    La Négritude dans la littérature afro-caribéenne contemporaine: mort ou transformation?
    (2015-05-01) Bassong-DesRochers, Lova; Niang, Sada
    Née à Paris dans les années 30, la Négritude, mouvement littéraire, culturel et politique a largement dominé les textes afro-caribéens dans la première partie du XXème siècle. Ses pères que sont Léon-Gontran Damas, Aimé Césaire et Léopold Sedar entendaient, à travers elle, lutter contre le réductionnisme esclavagiste et colonial qu’avaient subi et que continuaient de subir les peuples Noirs. Sur le plan politique, son émergence coïncida avec la montée des mouvements nationalistes en Afrique, dans les Caraïbes ainsi qu’en Amérique Latine. Or, malgré son apport au monde Noir, à partir des années 60 elle devint la cible d’attaques virulentes de toutes parts. En effet, la considérant comme désuète, essentialiste et abstraite, plusieurs critiques se sont levés pour violemment dénoncer ses exubérances et limites. C’est ainsi que jadis célébré, ce mode de réinsertion des peuples Noirs dans la modernité fut rejeté à tel point que nos jours il existe rarement des auteurs francophones qui se réclament encore de cette école de pensée. Toutefois, compte-tenu du nombre considérable de romans afro- antillais contemporains qui continuent de prôner la valorisation du Noir et de sa culture, dans ce travail nous essayons de prouver que, bien que contestée, la Négritude a toujours pignon sur rue. Pour ce faire, à travers une analyse de trois œuvres d’auteurs afro-caribéens modernes, à savoir : Fleur de Barbarie de Gisèle Pineau, Le Ventre de l’Atlantique de Fatou Diome et Demain J’aurai vingt-ans d’Alain Mabanckou nous rendons compte des relents de la Négritude dans la littérature francophone actuelle.
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    Effet de l’implémentation d'Explorez, jeu basé sur la quête et la réalité augmentée, sur la motivation d’apprenants de français langue seconde (FL2): une étude de cas
    (2015-04-30) Perry, Bernadette; Caws, Catherine
    This research explores gamification as a means to motivate and engage second-language learners. Gamification uses game-based mechanics, and game thinking to engage people, motivate action, and promote learning. We investigate the limits and advantages of quest-based learning and augmented reality to assess the potential of a new mobile learning tool Explorez. In order to bridge the gap between gaming and education, Explorez was created for first-year university French students at the University of Victoria, BC. Using GPS, Explorez transforms the campus into a virtual francophone world, where students interact with characters, items, and media as they improve their French language skills and discover their campus.
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    Traducteur au pays des merveilles: Une exploration de la traduction de L’écume des jours de Boris Vian
    (2015-04-27) Angus, Celine; Lapprand, Marc
    Traducteur au pays des merveilles est une exploration de la traduction de L’écume des jours (1947) de Boris Vian. Les deux traductions du livre, Froth on the Daydream (1967) (Mood Indigo) de Stanley Chapman et Foam of the Daze (2003) de Brian Harper, font l’objet d’une comparaison portant sur les éléments propres à l’écriture de Vian. La première partie porte, de manière générale, sur les tendances des traducteurs et les critiques des textes traduits. La deuxième partie met l’accent sur les références culturelles et leurs traductions dans l’avant-propos et le premier chapitre. Ensuite, trois méthodes de création des néologismes (proposées par Jacques Bens) servent de point de départ à une exploration du langage « vianesque » dans la troisième partie. L’analyse de l’écriture de Boris Vian dans L’écume des jours ainsi que des méthodes des traducteurs, nous permet d’observer les effets de style émanant des trois textes. Traducteur au pays des merveilles explores the translation of Boris Vian’s L’écume des jours (1947). The two translations of the book, Froth on the Daydream (1967) (Mood Indigo) and Foam of the Daze (2003), are compared here in regards to particular elements of Vian’s writing. The first part examines in a general manner, the tendencies of the translators and the critique of the translated texts. The concentration of the second part is on the cultural references from the foreword and the first chapter as well as their translations. Three methods for creating neologisms (put forth by Jacques Bens) then serve as a starting point for the exploration of the “vianesque” language in the third part. By analysing Boris Vian’s writing in L’écume des jours as well as the methods of the translators, we are able to observe the stylistic effects that are produced by the three texts.
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    Pour un exil désexilant : une analyse du thème de l'exil dans Littoral et Incendies de Wajdi Mouawad au théâtre et au cinéma
    (2014-12-22) Berron-Styan, Gabrielle; Niang, Sada
    Ce mémoire traite du thème de l’exil dans les deux premiers volets du cycle Le Sang des promesses du dramaturge et metteur en scène Wajdi Mouawad, Littoral (2009) et Incendies (2003), ainsi que dans leur adaptation cinématographique. C’est selon nous une problématique importante dans la création artistique de Mouawad. Dans le premier chapitre de notre travail, nous montrerons que l’exil est un phénomène complexe et multiforme. Ensuite, nous nous pencherons sur les différentes formes d’exil qui préoccupent les personnages dans le théâtre de Mouawad. Nous verrons que, dans les deux pièces de notre corpus, l’exil est à la fois spatial et psychologique, extérieur et intérieur, individuel et collectif, volontaire et subi, valorisant et démoralisant. Nous verrons aussi que l’expérience et les conséquences de l’exil varient selon la génération à laquelle appartiennent les personnages. Le troisième chapitre de notre étude sera consacré à l’analyse des films Littoral (2004) et Incendies (2010). Nous montrerons que grâce à ses techniques de montage, de cadrage et de prises de vue, le cinéma nous offre une interprétation visuellement riche de l’expérience, intérieure et extérieure, individuelle et collective, de l’exil. Finalement, nous montrerons que pour sortir de l’exil, les personnages mouawadiens doivent réaliser une autre forme d’exil : un exil désexilant. Nous verrons ainsi à quel point l’exil est au cœur de la création artistique de Wajdi Mouawad.
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    L'Invisible sablier de La Vie mode d'emploi de Georges Perec: Passage de la fiction à la réalité
    (2014-12-17) Blanc, Magali; Lapprand, Marc; Fromet de Rosnay, Emile
    Roman singulier mais pluriel par ses cent soixante-dix-neuf histoires répertoriées dans le compendium, La Vie mode d’emploi invite le lecteur à pénétrer dans un monde hybride. Ancré dans l’imaginaire de Georges Perec, il n’hésite cependant pas à mettre un pied dans le réel du lecteur donnant à la narration un aspect particulièrement troublant et déroutant pour ce dernier. Les théoriciens de la psychologie évolutionniste tel que Joseph Carroll, proposent de considérer le texte littéraire comme le vecteur d’un apprentissage adaptatif de l’espèce humaine. Grâce à la narration, l’être humain développe des outils cognitifs nécessaires à sa survie. Le roman de Perec raconte les histoires de Percival Bartlebooth, un jeune rentier Anglais qui a consacré la moitié de sa vie à atteindre un idéal inatteignable, et de Gaspard Winckler, « son double », nourrissant une vengeance silencieuse et secrète à son égard. Le lecteur suivra donc les traces de ces destins incroyables pour tenter de découvrir l’ultime vérité que cache La Vie mode d’emploi.
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    La construction de l'identité sexuelle à la lecture de Judith Butler dans Le choeur des femmes de Martin Winckler et Middlesex de Jeffrey Eugenides
    (2014-08-26) Windels, Sylvie; Lapprand, Marc; Carlin, Claire L.
    Dans ses ouvrages, Gender Trouble et Undoing Gender, Judith Butler soutient que le sexe est une norme politique destinée à promouvoir l'hétérosexualité. Elle réfute l'idée d'un genre social s'appuyant sur un sexe biologique et considère que les deux concepts sont des produits de la performativité des normes. Le cas des intersexués est particulièrement intéressant pour illustrer ces théories. Ces individus présentent en effet une anatomie qui remet en cause le dimorphisme sexuel et soulèvent le problème de la construction d'une identité sexuelle cohérente sur un corps androgyne. Les romans d'apprentissage, Le choeur des femmes de Martin Winckler et Middlesex de Jeffrey Eugenides décrivent le parcours de deux personnages intersexués et mettent en évidence l'action des normes décrites par Judith Butler. Ils révèlent notamment l'action performative du langage ainsi que la collusion entre savoir et pouvoir. Ils nous invitent à imaginer une société où la catégorisation sexuelle serait moins restrictive. In Gender Trouble and Undoing Gender, Judith Butler challenges notions of sex and gender and contests that gender is the social construct of a biological sex. She affirms that both of them are gendered concepts and she develops her theory of gender performativity. Intersexuality is particularly pertinent to illustrate these concepts. Intersex individuals cannot be distinctly identified as male or female and they face the problem of building a coherent gender identity on an ambiguous biological sex. The bildungsromans, Le choeur des femmes by Martin Winckler and Middlesex by Jeffrey Eugenides introduce intersex main characters who have to overcome many obstacles in their search for identity. They realize the impossibility of describing their condition or their feelings because of the performativity and the paucity of the language and discover that knowledge and power are indissociable. Their struggles call us to re-evaluate sexual identification.
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    L’impact sur l’usage des recommandations officielles de la France et du Québec dans le domaine de l’informatique : Étude de l’implantation terminologique
    (2013-08-23) Saint, Elizabeth C.; Caws, Catherine
    This thesis examines the degree to which computer science terminology as recommended by the official language planning organizations of France (Délégation générale à la langue française et aux langues de France) and Quebec (Office québécois de la langue française) is integrated in business communication language. While the study of terminology implantation has been determined in peer-reviewed literature as being crucial to language planners in order to verify the successful use of their own recommendations, only a small number of studies have been undertaken in this field over the last few decades. Incorporating and adapting the terminometrics protocol created by Jean Quirion (2000), we investigate the degree of implantation of official terms for computer peripherals in comparison to other French and English synonyms inside a corpus constituted of webpages of international information technology (IT) companies. Our study reveals how the distinct language policy of France and Quebec, due to different historical, sociological and political events, may influence the scope of their action on language use.
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    Enfant sauvage: entre l’ange et la bête : de nouveaux récits d’enfance au 18e siècle.
    (2012-08-31) Fairweather, Erin Phyllis; Cazes, Helene
    This thesis examines the depiction of the feral child through the literary study of 18th and 19th century French texts. This body of research isn’t meant to establish historical facts, or to construct a global history of childhood, but rather it’s a work on the representation of humanity, on the issues surrounding the conceptualizations of childhood and animality that emerged parallel to changes in theological and philosophical ideas or mentalities. Reflecting upon the cases of Marie-Angélique le Blanc, Victor de l’Aveyron, and Kaspar Hauser, and supporting narratives as well as on related anthologies of edifying anecdotes of wise, virtuous, obedient children, this study shows patterns of imagery and themes that confirm that the ways of viewing the child in literature and society is linked to path of thought regarding questions of humanity; stories filled with spiritual connotations fade as faith in science moves to the forefront of inquiry.
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    Portraits de Jeanne d’Albret, femme exemplaire
    (2011-06-02) MacAskill, Annick Laura Leontine; Cazes, Helene
    This thesis examines the literary representations of Jeanne d’Albret (1528-1572), Queen of Navarre. While this historical figure has already known many historical studies, this work seeks to highlight her importance in French literature, as subject, patron and writer herself. Concentrating on the theme of feminine exemplarity and its rhetorical implications, this study will show the evolution and transformation of Jeanne d’Albret’s representation in the literary world, from various epidictic pieces composed for her during her childhood, to the legacy of a woman of letters, to the celebration of a strong Calvinist Queen, and eventually to the shadowing of these successes in the eighteenth-century Encyclopédie.